How to format your references using the Molecular Aspects of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Aspects of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Claeys, M., 2010. Comment on “Unexpected epoxide formation in the gas-phase photooxidation of isoprene.” Science 327, 644; author reply 644.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connor, R.M., Kenny, P.J., 2015. Neuroscience: Binge drinking and brain stress systems. Nature 520, 168–169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H., Cheng, Y.-C., Fleming, G.R., 2007. Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence. Science 316, 1462–1465.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, D.D.D., Lee, C.S., Au, F.C.K., Tong, S.Y., Lee, S.T., 2003. Small-diameter silicon nanowire surfaces. Science 299, 1874–1877.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walter, R.J., 1998. Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Taber, K.S. (Ed.), 2009. Progressing Science Education: Constructing the Scientific Research Programme into the Contingent Nature of Learning Science, Science & Technology Education Library. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Radziwill, N., DuPlain, R., 2009. A Model for Business Innovation in the Web 2.0 World, in: Lytras, M.D., Damiani, E., Ordóñez de Pablos, P. (Eds.), Web 2.0: The Business Model. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 1–14.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Aspects of Medicine.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. How The Snake Lost Its Legs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority: Improved Planning of Future Rehabilitation Projects Could Prevent Limitations Identified with SafeTrack (No. GAO-17-348). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nattress, D.A., 2013. Benefits of single-gender education: Perceptions of middle grade teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F., 2008. ‘Traffic Calming’ Theory Can Provoke a Storm. New York Times LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Claeys, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Claeys, 2010; O’Connor and Kenny, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connor and Kenny, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Aspects of Medicine
AbbreviationMol. Aspects Med.
ISSN (print)0098-2997
Clinical Biochemistry
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine
General Medicine

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