How to format your references using the Modern Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kirshner RP. Throwing light on dark energy. Science. 2003;300:1914–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rohrer F, Berresheim H. Strong correlation between levels of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals and solar ultraviolet radiation. Nature. 2006;442:184–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lieberman D, Tooby J, Cosmides L. The architecture of human kin detection. Nature. 2007;445:727–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kim K, Kim M-J, Kim S-I, Jang J-H. Towards visible light hydrogen generation: quantum dot-sensitization via efficient light harvesting of hybrid-TiO2. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rajagopal R. Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Afzalpulkar N, Srivastava V, Singh G, Bhatnagar D, editors. Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing: ICRCWIP-2014. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Watson DG, Buxó-Lugo A, Simmons DC. The Effect of Phonological Encoding on Word Duration: Selection Takes Time. In: Frazier L, Gibson E, editors. Explicit and Implicit Prosody in Sentence Processing: Studies in Honor of Janet Dean Fodor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 85–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Kepler Could Soon Spot Extrasolar Moons [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies’ Maintenance of Computer Programs: Expensive and Undermanaged. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Feb. Report No.: AFMD-81-25.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. O’Byrne SM. Metabolic and pathological role of retinyl esters: The role of lecithin:retinol acyl transferase, (LRAT) [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Meier JS. Home Is Where the Harm Is. New York Times. 2013 Mar 6;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Rheumatology
ISSN (print)1439-7595
ISSN (online)1439-7609

Other styles