How to format your references using the Modern Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McGaugh S. Astronomy. Seeing through dark matter. Science. 2007;317:607–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Greenberg DA, Jin K. From angiogenesis to neuropathology. Nature. 2005;438:954–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Huang S, Bai M, Wang L. General and facile surface functionalization of hydrophobic nanocrystals with poly(amino acid) for cell luminescence imaging. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2023.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jha N, Ramesh P, Bekyarova E, Tian X, Wang F, Itkis ME, et al. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube-based fuel cell benchmarked against US DOE 2017 technical targets. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Blackford R. Freedom of Religion and the Secular State. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1. Różewski P, Novikov D, Bakhtadze N, Zaikin O, editors. New Frontiers in Information and Production Systems Modelling and Analysis: Incentive Mechanisms, Competence Management, Knowledge-based Production. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Achenbach TM. Developmental, Quantitative, and Multicultural Assessment of Psychopathology. In: Lewis M, Rudolph KD, editors. Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2014. p. 67–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Develop Water Tractor Beam [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. HUD Information Systems: Immature Software Acquisition Capability Increases Project Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Sep. Report No.: GAO-01-962.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Noxon C. Sedentism, Agriculture, and the Neolithic Demographic Transition: Insights from Jōmon Paleodemography [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Asks Congress for Law to Allow It to Restructure $49 Billion in Debt. New York Times. 2016 Feb 6;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Rheumatology
ISSN (print)1439-7595
ISSN (online)1439-7609

Other styles