How to format your references using the Modern Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Strittmatter WJ. Medicine. Old drug, new hope for Alzheimer’s disease. Science. 2012;335:1447–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Dangl JL, Jones JD. Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection. Nature. 2001;411:826–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rubenstein M, Cornejo A, Nagpal R. Robotics. Programmable self-assembly in a thousand-robot swarm. Science. 2014;345:795–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Beaulac R, Schneider L, Archer PI, Bacher G, Gamelin DR. Light-induced spontaneous magnetization in doped colloidal quantum dots. Science. 2009;325:973–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Halpert B. Auditing Cloud Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Nayyeri K. Pro ASP.NET SignalR: Real-Time Communication in .NET with SignalR 2.1. White D, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Quillen E, Glahn D, Almasy L. The Strategy and Utility of the Endophenotype Approach to Neurobehavioral Function. In: Jagaroo V, Santangelo SL, editors. Neurophenotypes: Advancing Psychiatry and Neuropsychology in the “OMICS” Era. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2016. p. 81–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Rheumatology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Large Study Explores How Often Patients Wake Up During Surgery [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Assessment of Audits of Bilingual Education Grants in Texas by U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Inspector General. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 Dec. Report No.: AFMD-85-6.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dhokar A. LabVIEW based simulation and animation for the vibration control of active mass damper [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Martin J, Burns A. G.O.P. Candidates Aiming to Escape Trump’s Shadow. New York Times. 2016 Aug 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Rheumatology
ISSN (print)1439-7595
ISSN (online)1439-7609

Other styles