How to format your references using the Modern Phytomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Phytomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Khalil A.M. 2009. Journal Club. A Geneticist Views Two Theories of X-Chromosome Inactivation in a Broad Context. Nature 458: 263.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schoch R.R., Sues H.-D. 2015. A Middle Triassic Stem-Turtle and the Evolution of the Turtle Body Plan. Nature 523: 584–587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn F.A., Lankheet M.J., Rieke F. 2007. Light Adaptation in Cone Vision Involves Switching between Receptor and Post-Receptor Sites. Nature 449: 603–606.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dunne L., Eales S., Ivison R., Morgan H., Edmunds M. 2003. Type II Supernovae as a Significant Source of Interstellar Dust. Nature 424: 285–287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corrigan P.W., Roe D., Tsang H.W.H. 2011. Challenging the Stigma of Mental Illness. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Allan D.S., Strunk D. (eds.). 2012. Regenerative Therapy Using Blood-Derived Stem Cells. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Cai W., Shalaev V. 2010. Magnetic Metamaterials. In: Shalaev V. (ed.), Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications: 77–100 Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Phytomorphology.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2017. Top Republicans Propose Carbon Tax Plan To Stop Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Freight Railroads: Industry Health Has Improved, but Concerns about Competition and Capacity Should Be Addressed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter V.P. 2013. Communitarian Leadership Practice Acquisition in Educational Leadership Preparation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chavez L. 2011. Quotation of the Day. New York Times: A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Khalil 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Khalil 2009; Schoch & Sues 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schoch & Sues 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Dunne et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Phytomorphology
ISSN (print)2226-3063
ISSN (online)2227-9555

Other styles