How to format your references using the Modern Phytomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Modern Phytomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kummel A.C. 2003. Chemistry. How to Assemble a Molecular Junction. Science 302: 69–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shin J.S., Abraham S.N. 2001. Cell Biology. Caveolae--Not Just Craters in the Cellular Landscape. Science 293: 1447–1448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aspinwall L.G., Brown T.R., Tabery J. 2012. The Double-Edged Sword: Does Biomechanism Increase or Decrease Judges’ Sentencing of Psychopaths? Science 337: 846–849.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Erbil H.Y., Demirel A.L., Avci Y., Mert O. 2003. Transformation of a Simple Plastic into a Superhydrophobic Surface. Science 299: 1377–1380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon P., Brousse T., Favier F. 2017. Supercapacitors Based on Carbon or Pseudocapacitive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pears N., Liu Y., Bunting P. (eds.). 2012. 3D Imaging, Analysis and Applications. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen D., Lin C. 2016. Crystal Growth and Characterization of NaxCoO2 and NaxCoO2·yH2O. In: Lin C., Maljuk A., Zhou F. (eds.),Springer Series in Materials Science Growth and Characterization of Bulk Superconductor Material: 115–142 Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Modern Phytomorphology.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Athletes Play Sports Better When Reminded They’re Going To Die One Day. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Brockton Substance Abuse. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mason M.C. 2013. A Heart Like a Fakir’s The Life and Times of General Sir James Abbott, KCB.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N., Nechepurenko I. 2017. In Over 100 Cities, Protesters Heed Anti-Kremlin Cry. New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kummel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Shin & Abraham 2001; Kummel 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shin & Abraham 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Erbil et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleModern Phytomorphology
ISSN (print)2226-3063
ISSN (online)2227-9555

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