How to format your references using the Mobilities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mobilities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kraus, Virginia Byers. 2014. “Osteoarthritis: The Zinc Link.” Nature 507 (7493): 441–442.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benoist, Christophe, and Nir Hacohen. 2011. “Immunology. Flow Cytometry, Amped Up.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6030): 677–678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldner, A., N. Herold, and M. Huber. 2014. “Antarctic Glaciation Caused Ocean Circulation Changes at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition.” Nature 511 (7511): 574–577.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tuoriniemi, Juha, Kirsi Juntunen-Nurmilaukas, Johanna Uusvuori, Elias Pentti, Anssi Salmela, and Alexander Sebedash. 2007. “Superconductivity in Lithium below 0.4 Millikelvin at Ambient Pressure.” Nature 447 (7141): 187–189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jevon, Phil. 2012. Paediatric Advanced Life Support. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shin, Jung Cheol, Gerard A. Postiglione, and Futao Huang, eds. 2015. Mass Higher Education Development in East Asia: Strategy, Quality, and Challenges. Vol. 2. Knowledge Studies in Higher Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Canetti, Ran, Benjamin Fuller, Omer Paneth, Leonid Reyzin, and Adam Smith. 2016. “Reusable Fuzzy Extractors for Low-Entropy Distributions.” In Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2016: 35th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Vienna, Austria, May 8-12, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, edited by Marc Fischlin and Jean-Sébastien Coron, 117–146. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mobilities.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Study Suggests Rats Capable Of Feeling Regret Over Poor Choices.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Higher Education: Activities Underway to Improve Teacher Training, but Reporting on These Activities Could Be Enhanced. GAO-03-6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taaz, Zoya. 2017. “Boiler Automation and Monitoring of Temperature and Steam Flow Using Simulink.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, James R. 2016. “Juilliard’s Fast Takes on French Baroque.” New York Times, November 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kraus 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kraus 2014; Benoist and Hacohen 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benoist and Hacohen 2011)
  • Three authors: (Goldner, Herold, and Huber 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tuoriniemi et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMobilities
ISSN (print)1745-0101
ISSN (online)1745-011X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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