How to format your references using the Mobilities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mobilities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2005. “Tale of Two Surveys.” Nature 434 (7032): 539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sundaram, Jomo Kwame, and Rudiger von Arnim. 2009. “Economics. Trade Liberalization and Economic Development.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5911): 211–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodward, Joshua J., Anthony T. Iavarone, and Daniel A. Portnoy. 2010. “C-Di-AMP Secreted by Intracellular Listeria Monocytogenes Activates a Host Type I Interferon Response.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5986): 1703–1705.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Meyer, D. A., P. G. Kwiat, R. J. Hughes, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Ahn, and T. C. Weinacht. 2000. “Does Rydberg State Manipulation Equal Quantum Computation?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5484): 1431a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox, David A. 2004. Galois Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hughes, Graham R. V., ed. 2009. Understanding Hughes Syndrome: Case Studies for Patients. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Palacián, J. F., and P. Yanguas. 2006. “From the Circular to the Spatial Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem.” In Periodic, Quasi-Periodic and Chaotic Motions in Celestial Mechanics: Theory and Applications: Selected Papers from the Fourth Meeting on Celestial Mechanics, CELMEC IV San Martino Al Cimino (Italy), 11–16 September 2005, edited by A. Celletti and S. Ferraz-Mello, 81–99. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mobilities.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Fish-Eating Spiders Found on Six Continents.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Educating People at Risk for AIDS. T-PEMD-88-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zoino, Jayson Jon. 2017. “Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, Michael M. 2017. “Washington Reality Show Stripped of Its Protagonist.” New York Times, July 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005; Sundaram and von Arnim 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sundaram and von Arnim 2009)
  • Three authors: (Woodward, Iavarone, and Portnoy 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Meyer et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMobilities
ISSN (print)1745-0101
ISSN (online)1745-011X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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