How to format your references using the Mobilities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mobilities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lundgren, Paul. 2014. “Earth Science: Fertile Fields for Seismicity.” Nature 509 (7501): 436–437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sussman, Michael R., and George N. Phillips Jr. 2009. “Plant Science. How Plant Cells Go to Sleep for a Long, Long Time.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5958): 1356–1357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tschöp, M., D. L. Smiley, and M. L. Heiman. 2000. “Ghrelin Induces Adiposity in Rodents.” Nature 407 (6806): 908–913.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Podobnik, Boris, Belal E. Baaquie, Steven Bishop, Djuro Njavro, and Baowen Li. 2013. “Growth versus Government Management Improvement during Economic Downturn.” Scientific Reports 3: 1612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brendel, Rolf. 2005. Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Drossopoulou, Sophia, ed. 2008. Programming Languages and Systems: 17th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29-April 6, 2008. Proceedings. Vol. 4960. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Neber, Heinz, and Birgit J. Neuhaus. 2013. “Creativity and Problem-Based Learning (PBL): A Neglected Relation.” In Creativity, Talent and Excellence, edited by Ai-Girl Tan, 43–56. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mobilities.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Gravitational Lenses Let Astronomers See Brightest Galaxies Like Never Before.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Initial Pilot Training: Better Management Controls Are Needed to Improve FAA Oversight. GAO-12-117. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Little, Kayla. 2013. “Using Ancient and Modern Fishes to Track Environmental Change in the Illinois River.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coe, Alexis. 2017. “Presidential Biographies.” New York Times, February 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lundgren 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lundgren 2014; Sussman and Phillips 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sussman and Phillips 2009)
  • Three authors: (Tschöp, Smiley, and Heiman 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Podobnik et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMobilities
ISSN (print)1745-0101
ISSN (online)1745-011X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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