How to format your references using the Mobile Networks and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mobile Networks and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turney J (2001) Strings and things. Nature 410:873
A journal article with 2 authors
Flowers RM, Farley KA (2012) Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon. Science 338:1616–1619
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnham KW, Nelson J, Stevens RA (2000) Did civil reactors supply plutonium for weapons? Nature 407:833–834
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yang Z-H, Zhuo Y, Chai Y-Q, Yuan R (2014) High throughput immunosenor based on multi-label strategy and a novel array electrode. Sci Rep 4:4747

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sue DW (2003) Overcoming Our Racism. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Shastri Y, Hansen A, Rodríguez L, Ting KC (2014) Engineering and Science of Biomass Feedstock Production and Provision. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer E, Pavón E, Pereira CHF, Nascimento MLM (2016) Criteria for Identification of Ceramic Detachments in Building Facades with Infrared Thermography. In: Delgado JMPQ (ed) Recent Developments in Building Diagnosis Techniques. Springer, Singapore, pp 51–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mobile Networks and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Modifying Mosquitoes To Stop Transmission Of Dengue Fever. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration: Education and Outreach Programs Target Safety and Consumer Issues, but Gaps in Planning and Evaluation Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy R (2013) “Jagoron: Awakening” to Gender in Non Governmental Organizations in Contemporary Bengal. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM (2017) Kelly Presses Conspiracy Theorist in Edited Interview. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMobile Networks and Applications
AbbreviationMob. Netw. Appl.
ISSN (print)1383-469X
ISSN (online)1572-8153
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems

Other styles