How to format your references using the Mobile Networks and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mobile Networks and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horvat M (2011) Science in Europe. The new framework for EU research and innovation. Science 334:1066–1068
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer L, Milhollin G (2004) Nuclear safety. Brazil’s nuclear puzzle. Science 306:617
A journal article with 3 authors
ffrench-Constant C, Colognato H, Franklin RJM (2004) Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped. Science 304:688–689
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Erhard KF Jr, Stonaker JL, Parkinson SE, et al (2009) RNA polymerase IV functions in paramutation in Zea mays. Science 323:1201–1205

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama M, Boucenna ML, Batatia H (2015) Ad Hoc Networks Telecommunications and Game Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Brondízio ES, Moran EF (2013) Human-Environment Interactions: Current and Future Directions. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Barra M (2008) Pure Iteration and Periodicity. In: Beckmann A, Dimitracopoulos C, Löwe B (eds) Logic and Theory of Algorithms: 4th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2008, Athens, Greece, June 15-20, 2008 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 42–51

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mobile Networks and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Red, Yellow, Pink And Green: How The World’s Languages Name The Rainbow. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Examination of NASA Contract With Boeing. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moss KA (2017) The Development and Diffusion of the Cult of Isis in the Hellenistic Period. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY J, Yee V (2016) Questioning Cuomo’s Order on Homelessness. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMobile Networks and Applications
AbbreviationMob. Netw. Appl.
ISSN (print)1383-469X
ISSN (online)1572-8153
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems

Other styles