How to format your references using the Minerva Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta L. Protein purification: fast forward. Nature. 2006 Feb 23;439(7079):1017–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bandyopadhyay PR, Hellum AM. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 23;4:6650.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi C, Wei S, Hendrey G. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 1;4:5472.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiao WD, Zhang YY, Tao L, Aït-Mansour K, Chernichenko KY, Nenajdenko VG, et al. Impact of heterocirculene molecular symmetry upon two-dimensional crystallization. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 24;4:5415.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle M. An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Font-Llagunes JM, editor. Multibody Dynamics: Computational Methods and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. VIII, 321 p. 162 illus. (Computational Methods in Applied Sciences; vol. 42).
A chapter in an edited book
Kombrink S, Hannemann M, Burget L. Out-of-Vocabulary Word Detection and Beyond. In: Weinshall D, Anemüller J, Gool L van, editors. Detection and Identification of Rare Audiovisual Cues. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 57–65. (Kacprzyk J, editor. Studies in Computational Intelligence).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva Medica.

Blog post
Hale T. Two Of The World’s Rarest Tigers Have Been Born At London Zoo [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Pell Grant Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: HEHS-94-215R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mikhailik Y. Longing Limned [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc J. Solitude on the Hudson River. New York Times. 2017 Oct 23;F38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva Medica
AbbreviationMinerva Med.
ISSN (print)0026-4806
ISSN (online)1827-1669
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles