How to format your references using the Minerva Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barratt A. Perspective: The risks of overdiagnosis. Nature. 2015 Nov 19;527(7578):S104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waters MR, Stafford TW Jr. Redefining the age of Clovis: implications for the peopling of the Americas. Science. 2007 Feb 23;315(5815):1122–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilman D, Reich PB, Knops JMH. Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature. 2006 Jun 1;441(7093):629–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu CM, Lin HW, Lu CL, Chen C. Effect of grain orientations of Cu seed layers on the growth of -oriented nanotwinned Cu. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 19;4:6123.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dudbridge M. Handbook of Seal Integrity in the Food Industry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Lofrano G, editor. Emerging Compounds Removal from Wastewater: Natural and Solar Based Treatments. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. XVIII, 94 p. 16 illus., 10 illus. in color. (SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Ruuge AE, Van Oystaeyen F. Automorphisms of Finite Orthoalgebras, Exceptional Root Systems and Quantum Mechanics. In: Silvestrov S, Paal E, Abramov V, Stolin A, editors. Generalized Lie Theory in Mathematics, Physics and Beyond. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva Medica.

Blog post
Andrews R. Borneo’s “Deep Skull” Rewrites History Of Human Evolution [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Needs to Improve Its Decisionmaking Process for Its Route and Service Proposals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Apr. Report No.: GAO-02-398.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Julfayan-Gregorian V. Success Strategies of First-Generation Foreign-Born Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip M, Schwirtz M, Robbins T. New York State Taking on Union of Prison Guards. New York Times. 2016 Apr 11;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva Medica
AbbreviationMinerva Med.
ISSN (print)0026-4806
ISSN (online)1827-1669
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles