How to format your references using the Minerva Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Segre JA. MICROBIOME. Microbial growth dynamics and human disease. Science. 2015 Sep 4;349(6252):1058–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh BP, Cowie AL. Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 21;4:3687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finn CA, Sisson TW, Deszcz-Pan M. Aerogeophysical measurements of collapse-prone hydrothermally altered zones at Mount Rainier volcano. Nature. 2001 Feb 1;409(6820):600–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Self S, Blake S, Sharma K, Widdowson M, Sephton S. Sulfur and chlorine in late Cretaceous Deccan magmas and eruptive gas release. Science. 2008 Mar 21;319(5870):1654–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flynn MJ, Luk W. Computer System Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Tobin K, Shady A, editors. Transforming Urban Education: Urban Teachers and Students Working Collaboratively. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014. VIII, 388 p. (Bold Visions in Educational Research).
A chapter in an edited book
Wang H, Liu Z, Zuo M. Experimental Study on Sand Intercepting Process of Arbor Vegetation in Interlaced Zone of Desert and Oasis in Region of Arakan. In: Deng W, editor. Future Control and Automation: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) - Volume 1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 27–35. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva Medica.

Blog post
Evans K. Survey Off Alaska Discovers Multiple New Types of Deep Water-Dwelling Fish [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Chemical Assessments: Challenges Remain with EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Dec. Report No.: GAO-12-42.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore BA. The Writing Machine [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Once a Fill-In Keeper, Now a Winning Scorer. New York Times. 2011 Oct 31;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva Medica
AbbreviationMinerva Med.
ISSN (print)0026-4806
ISSN (online)1827-1669
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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