How to format your references using the Minerva Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H. Turning back the clock. Nature. 2007 Jan 18;445(7125):249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulet JFA, Hedwig B. The cellular basis of a corollary discharge. Science. 2006 Jan 27;311(5760):518–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Russell SH, Hancock MP, McCullough J. The pipeline. Benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Science. 2007 Apr 27;316(5824):548–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ji Q, Ji S-A, Cheng Y-N, You H-L, Lü J-C, Liu Y-Q, et al. Palaeontology: pterosaur egg with a leathery shell. Nature. 2004 Dec 2;432(7017):572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen RN. Scale Invariance. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
Schatzker J. The Rationale of Operative Fracture Care. Third Edition. Tile M, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XXIV, 668 p. 1718 illus., 321 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Flowers R. Deliberate and Emergent Approaches to Practice Development: Lessons Learned from the Australian Environment Movement. In: Trede F, McEwen C, editors. Educating the Deliberate Professional: Preparing for future practices. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 59–73. (Professional and Practice-based Learning).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva Medica.

Blog post
Andrew E. 14,000-Year-Old Tooth Shows Oldest Form Of Dentistry And It’s Pretty Grim [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S.-Japan Cooperative Development: Progress on FS-X Program Enhances Japanese Aerospace Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-95-145.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunn TN. A Puer–Senex Archetypal Model of the Therapeutic Relationship [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. The Gossip Just Won’t Stop. New York Times. 2013 Jun 6;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva Medica
AbbreviationMinerva Med.
ISSN (print)0026-4806
ISSN (online)1827-1669
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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