How to format your references using the Minerva citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laughlin, Gregory. 2015. Astronomy: A Mars-sized exoplanet. Nature 522: 290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Südhof, Thomas C., and James E. Rothman. 2009. Membrane fusion: grappling with SNARE and SM proteins. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323: 474–477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burns, Peter C., Rodney C. Ewing, and Alexandra Navrotsky. 2012. Nuclear fuel in a reactor accident. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335: 1184–1188.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kaplinsky, Nick, David Braun, Damon Lisch, Angela Hay, Sarah Hake, and Michael Freeling. 2002. Biodiversity (Communications arising): maize transgene results in Mexico are artefacts. Nature 416: 601–2; discussion 600, 602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaut Roth, Carolyn, and William H. Faulkner Jr. 2013. Review Questions for MRI. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Hinkson, Grant. 2009. Foundation Fireworks CS4. Edited by Craig Erskine, Matt Heerema, Chuck Mallott, Matthew Keefe, Hugh Griffith, Clay Andres, Douglas Pundick, et al. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Munoz-Garcia, Felix, and Daniel Toro-Gonzalez. 2016. Sequential-Move Games with Complete Information. In Strategy and Game Theory: Practice Exercises with Answers, ed. Daniel Toro-Gonzalez, 107–143. Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. Scientists Reconstruct the Life of a Teenage Girl from the Contents of a 3,400-Year-Old Coffin. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 27.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Information Technology: Key Federal Agencies Need to Address Potentially Duplicative Investments. GAO-13-718. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton, Nhat-Quang. 2015. A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meyer, Jeffrey A., and Linda Ross Meyer. 2007. All Prosecution Is Local. New York Times, March 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laughlin 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Südhof and Rothman 2009; Laughlin 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Südhof and Rothman 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaplinsky et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva
ISSN (print)0026-4695
ISSN (online)1573-1871
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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