How to format your references using the Minerva citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gutscher, Marc-André. 2004. Geoscience. What caused the great Lisbon earthquake? Science (New York, N.Y.) 305: 1247–1248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Estrin, Deborah, and Ida Sim. 2010. Health care delivery. Open mHealth architecture: an engine for health care innovation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330: 759–760.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jermiin, Lars S., Leon Poladian, and Michael A. Charleston. 2005. Evolution. Is the “Big Bang” in animal evolution real? Science (New York, N.Y.) 310: 1910–1911.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Garant, Dany, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Teddy A. Wilkin, Robin H. McCleery, and Ben C. Sheldon. 2005. Evolution driven by differential dispersal within a wild bird population. Nature 433: 60–65.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abd-El-Barr, Mostafa, and Hesham El-Rewini. 2004. Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barton, Larry L., Martin Mandl, and Alexander Loy, ed. 2010. Geomicrobiology: Molecular and Environmental Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dharani, G., A. K. Abdul Nazar, N. Saravanane, N. V. Vinithkumar, J. Santhanakumar, Krupa Ratnam, Dilip Kumar Jha, et al. 2012. On the Recurrence of Coral Bleaching and Recovery in North Bay, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In Ecology of Faunal Communities on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, ed. K. Venkataraman, C. Raghunathan, and C. Sivaperuman, 71–84. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. NASA To Invest In Eco-Friendly Commercial Supersonic Jets. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 8.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s System of Accounting for Accounts Receivable. FGMSD-77-89. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guillory, Melanie K. 2017. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Tennessee. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. Puig’s Popularity Reflects Growing Hispanic Interest. New York Times, August 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gutscher 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gutscher 2004; Estrin and Sim 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Estrin and Sim 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Garant et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva
ISSN (print)0026-4695
ISSN (online)1573-1871
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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