How to format your references using the Minerva citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennis, Carina. 2002. Stem-cell reverse angers Australian biologists. Nature 416: 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tregenza, Tom, and Nina Wedell. 2002. Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding. Nature 415: 71–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sellman, B. R., M. Mourez, and R. J. Collier. 2001. Dominant-negative mutants of a toxin subunit: an approach to therapy of anthrax. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292: 695–697.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Luecke, H., B. Schobert, J. K. Lanyi, E. N. Spudich, and J. L. Spudich. 2001. Crystal structure of sensory rhodopsin II at 2.4 angstroms: insights into color tuning and transducer interaction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293: 1499–1503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alrifai, Tariq. 2015. Islamic Finance and the New Financial System. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Lustig, B. Andrew, Baruch A. Brody, and Gerald P. McKenny, ed. 2008. Altering Nature: Volume Two: Religion, Biotechnology, and Public Policy. Vol. 98. Philosophy and Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez, José, María Guinaldo, and Sebastián Dormido. 2015. Event-Triggered Anticipative Control over Packet-Based Networks. In Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems, ed. María Guinaldo Losada, Francisco Rodríguez Rubio, and Sebastián Dormido Bencomo, 79–110. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Robot Hitchhiker Will Make Its Way Across The U.S. This Summer. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 26.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Welfare to Work: JOBS Automated Systems Do Not Focus on Program’s Employment Objective. AIMD-94-44. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner, Gregoria. 2010. Falls among older adults 65 years and older. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James. 2017. E.U. Endorses Guidelines to Negotiate ‘Brexit.’ New York Times, April 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dennis 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dennis 2002; Tregenza and Wedell 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tregenza and Wedell 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Luecke et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva
ISSN (print)0026-4695
ISSN (online)1573-1871
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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