How to format your references using the Minerva citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. 2000. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Silent No Longer: “Model Minority” Mobilizes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 290: 1072–1077.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nestler, E. J., and D. Landsman. 2001. Learning about addiction from the genome. Nature 409: 834–835.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruthazer, Edward S., Colin J. Akerman, and Hollis T. Cline. 2003. Control of axon branch dynamics by correlated activity in vivo. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 66–70.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chuang, Chih-Pin, Tao Yuan, Wojciech Dmowski, Gong-Yao Wang, Matt Freels, Peter K. Liaw, Ran Li, and Tao Zhang. 2013. Fatigue-induced damage in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Scientific reports 3: 2578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Atherton, John, Frederic Gil, and Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2008. Incidents That Define Process Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mazure, Alain. 2012. Matter, Dark Matter, and Anti-Matter: In Search of the Hidden Universe. Edited by Vincent Le Brun. Springer Praxis Books. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Kanne, Jeffrey P. 2013. The Role of Thoracic Imaging in the Diagnosis of BOS and Related Disorders. In Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Lung Transplantation, ed. Keith C. Meyer and Allan R. Glanville, 59–70. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. Iconic Arecibo Observatory Faces Closure Due To Lack Of Funding. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 6.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Needed to Avoid Disruption of Essential Services. T-AIMD-98-117. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, Laura L. 2012. Of Hell and High Water: Longitudinal Case Studies of the Internal and External Recovery Efforts of Non-Governmental Organizations after Hurricane Katrina. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2000. In Chinatown, Bulgarian Red Means Wine, Not Politics. New York Times, September 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler 2000; Nestler and Landsman 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nestler and Landsman 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chuang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva
ISSN (print)0026-4695
ISSN (online)1573-1871
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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