How to format your references using the Minerva citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
VanNimwegen, Ron. 2007. Award-winning commitment. Nature 447: 610.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brinker, C. Jeffrey, and Paul G. Clem. 2013. Materials science. Quartz on silicon. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340: 818–819.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai, Suo, Qi Xu, and Yong Qin. 2013. Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike. Scientific reports 3: 1851.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Okajima, Tetsuya, Aiguo Xu, Liang Lei, and Kenneth D. Irvine. 2005. Chaperone activity of protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 promotes notch receptor folding. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1599–1603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLean, Doug. 2012. Understanding Aerodynamics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
González Nieto, Juan, Wolfgang Reif, Guojun Wang, and Jadwiga Indulska, ed. 2009. Autonomic and Trusted Computing: 6th International Conference, ATC 2009 Brisbane, Australia, July 7-9, 2009 Proceedings. Vol. 5586. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Onori, Simona, Lorenzo Serrao, and Giorgio Rizzoni. 2016. Dynamic Programming. In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Management Strategies, ed. Lorenzo Serrao and Giorgio Rizzoni, 41–49. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. Watch Live As Solar Impulse Ends Its Sun-Powered Flight Around The World. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 25.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. NASA Certification of Funds. AFMD-93-30ML. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolasa, Artur. 2014. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Countries. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. Mets’ Pitching Coach Offers Wisdom and Wit. New York Times, May 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (VanNimwegen 2007).
This sentence cites two references (VanNimwegen 2007; Brinker and Clem 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brinker and Clem 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Okajima et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva
ISSN (print)0026-4695
ISSN (online)1573-1871
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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