How to format your references using the Minerva citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Minerva. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koff, Wayne C. 2010. Accelerating HIV vaccine development. Nature 464: 161–162.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coles, P., and L. Y. Chiang. 2000. Characterizing the nonlinear growth of large-scale structure in the Universe. Nature 406: 376–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutolf, Matthias P., Penney M. Gilbert, and Helen M. Blau. 2009. Designing materials to direct stem-cell fate. Nature 462: 433–441.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Wen, Steven D. Christenson, Scott Standage, and Ben Shen. 2002. Biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297: 1170–1173.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackenzie, Bruce, Tapiwa Njikizana, Danie Coetsee, Raymond Chamboko, Blaise Colyvas, Brandon Hanekom, and Edwin Selbst. 2014. 2014 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McInerney, Daniel. 2015. Open Source Geospatial Tools: Applications in Earth Observation. Edited by Pieter Kempeneers. Earth Systems Data and Models. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Almeida Matos, Ana. 2009. Flow Policy Awareness for Distributed Mobile Code. In CONCUR 2009 - Concurrency Theory: 20th International Conference, CONCUR 2009, Bologna, Italy, September 1-4, 2009. Proceedings, ed. Mario Bravetti and Gianluigi Zavattaro, 53–68. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Minerva.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. How A Simple Vitamin B Prescription Could Help People With Alzheimer’s. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 24.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Governmentwide Strategy Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs. GAO-13-529T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, Dustin H. 2017. Why Do They Get High?: An Examination of Social Bond Theory and Substance Use in College. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2017. ‘Biggest Fight’ Behind Her, Kvitova Returns Ahead of Schedule. New York Times, May 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koff 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Coles and Chiang 2000; Koff 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coles and Chiang 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMinerva
ISSN (print)0026-4695
ISSN (online)1573-1871
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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