How to format your references using the Military Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Military Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Atkinson QD. Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa. Science. 2011;332:346–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Poucet B, Save E. Neuroscience. Attractors in memory. Science. 2005;308:799–800.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lacetera N, Macis M, Slonim R. Public health. Economic rewards to motivate blood donations. Science. 2013;340:927–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ranjani V, Janeček S, Chai KP, Shahir S, Abdul Rahman RNZR, Chan K-G, et al. Protein engineering of selected residues from conserved sequence regions of a novel Anoxybacillus α-amylase. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5850.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gywat O, Krenner HJ, Berezovsky J. Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
An edited book
1. Gervasi O, Taniar D, Murgante B, Laganà A, Mun Y, Gavrilova ML, editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2009: International Conference, Seoul, Korea, June 29-July 2, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wang X, Li H, Xia Z. Chlamydia pneumoniae Pneumonia. In: Li H, editor. Radiology of Infectious Diseases: Volume 2. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 69–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Military Medical Research.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. To Fight Antibiotic Resistance, We Need To Fight Bad Prescribing Habits. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Hispanics’ Schooling: Risk Factors for Dropping Out and Barriers to Resuming Their Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jul. Report No.: PEMD-94-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tambornini TF. Supportive and subsidized housing solutions for Sonoma County: A grant project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD. An Obscure Law Unravels Obama’s Legacy, One Rule at a Time. New York Times. 2017 May 1;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMilitary Medical Research
AbbreviationMil. Med. Res.
ISSN (online)2054-9369
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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