How to format your references using the Military Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Military Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gewin V. Industry lured by the gains of going green. Nature. 2005;436:173.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tan S, Lü J. Characterizing the effect of population heterogeneity on evolutionary dynamics on complex networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5034.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pereira HM, Borda-de-Água L, Martins IS. Geometry and scale in species-area relationships. Nature. 2012;482:E3-4; author reply E5-6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhao Y, Hu L, Liu H, Liao M, Fang X, Wu L. Band gap tunable Zn2SnO4 nanocubes through thermal effect and their outstanding ultraviolet light photoresponse. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6847.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Relethford JH. 50 Great Myths of Human Evolution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Heredia RR, Altarriba J, editors. Foundations of Bilingual Memory. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gong Z-T, Bai Y-J, Pan W-Q. Preinvex Fuzzy-valued Function and Its Application in Fuzzy Optimization. In: Cao B-Y, Nasseri H, editors. Fuzzy Information & Engineering and Operations Research & Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Military Medical Research.

Blog post
1. Hale T. A Dodo Skeleton Is Going Up For Sale For The First Time In 100 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Surface Infrastructure: Review of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s Restructuring Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Jul. Report No.: RCED-98-237R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Duncan KF. Middle school teachers’ self-perceptions of response to intervention [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Haberman M, Landler M. In Paris, Trump Stands by His Son and Praises Macron. New York Times. 2017 Jul 13;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMilitary Medical Research
AbbreviationMil. Med. Res.
ISSN (online)2054-9369
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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