How to format your references using the Microorganisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microorganisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Appelbaum, F.R. Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation as Immunotherapy. Nature 2001, 411, 385–389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, S.; Coulter, D. Neuroscience. Neuronal Birth to Cortical Circuitry. Science 2013, 340, 1058–1059.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, X.; Clark, A.C.; Chan, M.H.W. Probable Heat Capacity Signature of the Supersolid Transition. Nature 2007, 449, 1025–1028.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Piro, N.A.; Figueroa, J.S.; McKellar, J.T.; Cummins, C.C. Triple-Bond Reactivity of Diphosphorus Molecules. Science 2006, 313, 1276–1279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharkh, S.M.; Abusara, M.A.; Orfanoudakis, G.I.; Hussain, B. Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids; John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2014; ISBN 9780470824054.
An edited book
Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Theory and Practice; Shah, N., Sandhu, H., Choi, D.S., Chokshi, H., Malick, A.W., Eds.; Advances in Delivery Science and Technology; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; ISBN 9781493915972.
A chapter in an edited book
Wessels, H. Statistics in the South African School Curriculum. In Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education: A Joint ICMI/IASE Study: The 18th ICMI Study; Batanero, C., Burrill, G., Reading, C., Eds.; New ICMI Study Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011; pp. 21–25 ISBN 9789400711303.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microorganisms.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Shrinking Of Antarctic Ice Shelves Is Accelerating (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Grant Administration: Implementation of National Endowment for the Arts Reauthorization Act; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borchardt, G.M. Making D.C. Democracy’s Capital: Local Activism, the “Federal State”, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Washington, D.C. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. Awakenings. New York Times 2017, BR13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroorganisms
ISSN (online)2076-2607

Other styles