How to format your references using the Microorganisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microorganisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sampson, R.J. Sociology. Moving and the neighborhood glass ceiling. Science 2012, 337, 1464–1465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chittka, L.; Peng, F. Neuroscience. Caffeine boosts bees’ memories. Science 2013, 339, 1157–1159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kellis, M.; Birren, B.W.; Lander, E.S. Proof and evolutionary analysis of ancient genome duplication in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature 2004, 428, 617–624.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McDaniell, R.; Lee, B.-K.; Song, L.; Liu, Z.; Boyle, A.P.; Erdos, M.R.; Scott, L.J.; Morken, M.A.; Kucera, K.S.; Battenhouse, A.; et al. Heritable individual-specific and allele-specific chromatin signatures in humans. Science 2010, 328, 235–239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitai, A. Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes: The role of the PN junction; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781119974543.
An edited book
Carotenoids in Nature: Biosynthesis, Regulation and Function; Stange, C., Ed.; Subcellular Biochemistry; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 79; ISBN 9783319391243.
A chapter in an edited book
Catthoor, F.; Raghavan, P.; Lambrechts, A.; Jayapala, M.; Kritikakou, A.; Absar, J. Clustered L0 (Loop) Buffer Organization and Combination with Data Clusters. In Ultra-Low Energy Domain-Specific Instruction-Set Processors; Raghavan, P., Lambrechts, A., Jayapala, M., Kritikakou, A., Absar, J., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp. 115–141 ISBN 9789048195275.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microorganisms.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Wind Farms Have An Insignificant Effect On Local Climate (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Systemwide Education Reform: Federal Leadership Could Facilitate District-Level Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb, S.L. Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. From the Men, A Few Highlights After the Deluge. New York Times 2011, SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroorganisms
ISSN (online)2076-2607

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