How to format your references using the Microorganisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microorganisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Astin, C. Helping Young Scientists to Speak for Themselves. Nature 2009, 460, 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, P.; Grayson, M. Assessing Science. Nature 2014, 511, S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nam, K.H.; Park, I.H.; Ko, S.H. Patterning by Controlled Cracking. Nature 2012, 485, 221–224.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, B.; Xin, H.; Li, X.; Cheng, J.; Yang, G.; Nie, F. Mesoporous CNT@TiO2-C Nanocable with Extremely Durable High Rate Capability for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stone, C.A.; Zissu, A. The Securitization Markets Handbook; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118531754.
An edited book
Extrusion in Ceramics; Händle, F., Ed.; Engineering Materials and Processes; 1st ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; ISBN 9783540271000.
A chapter in an edited book
Valiev, R.Z. Applications of Severe Plastic Deformations for Materials Nanostructuring Aimed at Advanced Properties. In Nanostructured Materials by High-Pressure Severe Plastic Deformation; Zhu, Y.T., Varyukhin, V., Eds.; NATO Science Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; pp. 29–37 ISBN 9781402039218.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microorganisms.

Blog post
Hale, T. DNA Reveals The Genetic History Of The Black Death Bacteria Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office James Webb Space Telescope: Project Meeting Commitments but Current Technical, Cost, and Schedule Challenges Could Affect Continued Progress; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chin, S.-H. A Performer’s Guide to Howard Hanson’s “Four Poems (Poèmes Érotiques)”, Opus 9. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Liptak, A.; Walsh, M.W. Top Court Will Decide Puerto Rico Debt Cases. New York Times 2015, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroorganisms
ISSN (online)2076-2607

Other styles