How to format your references using the Microorganisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microorganisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maddox, B. The Double Helix and the “Wronged Heroine.” Nature 2003, 421, 407–408.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vukmirovic, O.G.; Tilghman, S.M. Exploring Genome Space. Nature 2000, 405, 820–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, C.; Wang, P.; Makse, H.A. A Phase Diagram for Jammed Matter. Nature 2008, 453, 629–632.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, X.; Spaeth, R.B.; Retzepi, K.; Ott, D.; Kong, J. Acupuncture Modulates Cortical Thickness and Functional Connectivity in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli, D. Nanotechnology Applications to Telecommunications and Networking; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471736608.
An edited book
Acchar, W. Ceramic Materials from Coffee Bagasse Ash Waste; J. V. Dultra, E., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319152806.
A chapter in an edited book
Roederer, J.; Zhang, H. Particle Fluxes, Distribution Functions and Violation of Invariants. In Dynamics of Magnetically Trapped Particles: Foundations of the Physics of Radiation Belts and Space Plasmas; Zhang, H., Ed.; Astrophysics and Space Science Library; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 89–122 ISBN 9783642415296.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microorganisms.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Vast Oceanic Ridge Captures Southern Ocean’s Sediment Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Railroad Regulation: Competitive Access and Its Effects on Selected Railroads and Shippers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvarin, M. Special Education Paraeducators as Instructional Support. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. ‘Bachelor in Paradise’ Suspends Production. New York Times 2017, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroorganisms
ISSN (online)2076-2607

Other styles