How to format your references using the Microorganisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microorganisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shonkoff, J.P. Protecting brains, not simply stimulating minds. Science 2011, 333, 982–983.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poliakoff, M.; Anastas, P. A principled stance. Nature 2001, 413, 257.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabre, M.; Cone, R.; Saibil, H. Biophysics: is rhodopsin dimeric in native retinal rods? Nature 2003, 426, 30–1; discussion 31.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Song, W.; Kwon, S.Y.; Myung, S.; Jung, M.W.; Kim, S.J.; Min, B.K.; Kang, M.-A.; Kim, S.H.; Lim, J.; An, K.-S. High-mobility ambipolar ZnO-graphene hybrid thin film transistors. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4064.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi, S.V. Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2001; ISBN 9780470841624.
An edited book
Formal Grammar: 17th and 18th International Conferences, FG 2012, Opole, Poland, August 2012, Revised Selected Papers, FG 2013, Düsseldorf, Germany, August 2013. Proceedings; Morrill, G., Nederhof, M.-J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 8036; ISBN 9783642399978.
A chapter in an edited book
Sedlmair, M. Radiation Protection in CT-Guided Interventions. In CT- and MR-Guided Interventions in Radiology; Mahnken, A.H., Wilhelm, K.E., Ricke, J., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 41–50 ISBN 9783642335808.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microorganisms.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 3D Printer Makes Prosthetic Foot For Duck (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Science: Causes and Impacts of Cutbacks to NASA’s Outer Solar System Exploration Missions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, D.H. Why Do They Get High?: An Examination of Social Bond Theory and Substance Use in College. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. Film Series. New York Times 2017, C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroorganisms
ISSN (online)2076-2607

Other styles