How to format your references using the Current Surgery Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Surgery Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fukami T. IBI* series winner. Integrating inquiry-based teaching with faculty research. Science. 2013;339:1536–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fiete GA, de Lozanne A. Physics. Seeing quantum fractals. Science. 2010;327:652–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Husale S, Persson HHJ, Sahin O. DNA nanomechanics allows direct digital detection of complementary DNA and microRNA targets. Nature. 2009;462:1075–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Seres J, Seres E, Landgraf B, Ecker B, Aurand B, Hoffmann A, et al. Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4254.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kassapoglou C. Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Delle Fave A. Psychological Selection and Optimal Experience Across Cultures: Social Empowerment through Personal Growth. Massimini F, Bassi M, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Boissier O, Hübner JF, Sichman JS. Organization Oriented Programming: From Closed to Open Organizations. In: O’Hare GMP, Ricci A, O’Grady MJ, Dikenelli O, editors. Engineering Societies in the Agents World VII: 7th International Workshop, ESAW 2006 Dublin, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006 Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 86–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Surgery Reports.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Astronomers Discover Brightest and Furthest Pulsar Yet [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Competition: Essential Air Service Slots at O’Hare International Airport. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Mar. Report No.: RCED-94-118FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pecue CJ. Utilizing Audiovisual Stimuli in the Classroom to Facilitate Pronunciation of French Stop Consonants [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Arts, Briefly; Solzhenitsyn, Ready For Another Close-Up. New York Times. 2006 Mar 20;E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Surgery Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Surg. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-4817

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