How to format your references using the Current Surgery Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Surgery Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Artsimovitch I. Molecular biology: The tug of DNA repair. Nature. 2014;505:298–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Srinivasan M, Ruina A. Computer optimization of a minimal biped model discovers walking and running. Nature. 2006;439:72–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Beal EJ, House CH, Orphan VJ. Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science. 2009;325:184–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. McMorran BJ, Marshall VM, de Graaf C, Drysdale KE, Shabbar M, Smyth GK, et al. Platelets kill intraerythrocytic malarial parasites and mediate survival to infection. Science. 2009;323:797–800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Leleux B, van Swaay H, Megally E. Private Equity 4.0. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Qadeer S, Tasiran S, editors. Runtime Verification: Third International Conference, RV 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, September 25-28, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Warnecke T, Dohrmann P, Jürgens A, Rausch A, Pinkwart N. Collaborative Learning through Cooperative Design Using a Multitouch Table. In: Luo Y, editor. Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 8th International Conference, CDVE 2011, Hong Kong, China, September 11-14, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 22–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Surgery Reports.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Washing Your Clothes Can Release Up To 700,000 Microplastic Particles Into The Environment. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Supplemental Student Loans: Legislative Changes Have Sharply Reduced Loan Volume. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Aug. Report No.: HRD-90-149FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Norton JC. Elementary ESL and General Education Co-Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Co-Teaching Roles: A Mixed Methods Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. Pauley Is Back — Again. New York Times. 2016 Oct 8;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Surgery Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Surg. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-4817

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