How to format your references using the Current Surgery Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Surgery Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nurse P. Wee beasties. Nature. 2004;432:557.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cox CM, Chao BF. Detection of a large-scale mass redistribution in the terrestrial system since 1998. Science. 2002;297:831–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Barsic A, Grover G, Piestun R. Three-dimensional super-resolution and localization of dense clusters of single molecules. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5388.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Raj L, Ide T, Gurkar AU, Foley M, Schenone M, Li X, et al. Retraction Note: Selective killing of cancer cells by a small molecule targeting the stress response to ROS. Nature. 2018;561:420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Anandharamakrishnan C, Ishwarya SP. Spray Drying Techniques for Food Ingredient Encapsulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Halle LH. Néron Models and Base Change. 1st ed. 2016. Nicaise J, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kelly J, Brisson J-R, Young NM, Jarrell HC, Szymanski CM. Campylobacter. In: Chan VL, Sherman PM, Bourke B, editors. Bacterial Genomes and Infectious Diseases. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006. p. 63–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Surgery Reports.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Happy Birthday Philae: 7 Facts About The Amazing Comet Lander [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Recommendation to Congress To Relieve FAA Employee of Liability for Erroneous Payment]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: B-227513.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mathus MA. The Relationship between Teacher Evaluation Ratings and Student Achievement in a Rural, Midwest School District [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Strauss B. In Baltimore, This Song Is Their Song. New York Times. 2016 Sep 30;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Surgery Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Surg. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-4817

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