How to format your references using the Current Surgery Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Surgery Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rylance R. Grant giving: Global funders to focus on interdisciplinarity. Nature. 2015;525:313–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bouibes A, Zaoui A. High-pressure polymorphs of ZnCO₃: evolutionary crystal structure prediction. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5172.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Catalli K, Shim S-H, Prakapenka V. Thickness and Clapeyron slope of the post-perovskite boundary. Nature. 2009;462:782–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fu ZQ, Guo M, Jeong B-R, Tian F, Elthon TE, Cerny RL, et al. A type III effector ADP-ribosylates RNA-binding proteins and quells plant immunity. Nature. 2007;447:284–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ghez R. A Primer of Diffusion Problems. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Kowaliw T, Bredeche N, Doursat R, editors. Growing Adaptive Machines: Combining Development and Learning in Artificial Neural Networks. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Agassi J, Meidan A. The Burden of Proof. In: Meidan A, editor. Beg to Differ: The Logic of Disputes and Argumentation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 41–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Surgery Reports.

Blog post
1. Hale T. This Map Tells You If You’ll Be Vaporized By An Atomic Bomb [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Health Careers Opportunity Program: Process for Awarding Competitive Grants Included Independent Review. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Feb. Report No.: GAO-07-137.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wickramage AS. Analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae homologs of Histoplasma capsulatum RYP genes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Reconditioned Harvey Impresses in Winning Return for the Mets. New York Times. 2017 Apr 7;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Surgery Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Surg. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-4817

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