How to format your references using the Microbiome citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbiome. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Robinson K. Personal finance. Making the most of a good thing. Science. 2006;313:1456–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Campbell N, Grayson M. Nature Index 2014 china. Nature. 2014;516:S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ballester GE, Sing DK, Herbert F. The signature of hot hydrogen in the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Nature. 2007;445:511–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rumyantsev V, Fedorov S, Gumennyk K, Sychanova M, Kavokin A. Exciton-like electromagnetic excitations in non-ideal microcavity supercrystals. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dijksterhuis GB. Multivariate Data Analysis in Sensory and Consumer Science. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Collard M, editor. Ontologies-Based Databases and Information Systems: First and Second VLDB Workshops, ODBIS 2005/2006 Trondheim, Norway, September 2-3, 2005 Seoul, Korea, September 11, 2006 Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Van Biesbrouck M, Eeckhout L, Calder B. Efficient Sampling Startup for Sampled Processor Simulation. In: Conte T, Navarro N, Hwu W-MW, Valero M, Ungerer T, editors. High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: First International Conference, HiPEAC 2005, Barcelona, Spain, November 17-18, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbiome.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Device Could Help Gunshot Victims In Seconds. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tactical Airlift: Observations Concerning the Air Force’s C-27 Proposal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Apr. Report No.: NSIAD-88-124.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Howard-Skipper J. Leadership that promotes teacher empowerment among urban middle school science teachers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Smile When You Say It: Same Old Jets. New York Times. 2011 Jan 20;B25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobiome
ISSN (online)2049-2618

Other styles