How to format your references using the Microbiome citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbiome. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. DeLong EF. Evolution. Microbial evolution in the wild. Science. 2012;336:422–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shaywitz D, Dansky H. Found in translation. Nature. 2007;446:700.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Le Mée L, Girardeau J, Monnier C. Mantle segmentation along the Oman ophiolite fossil mid-ocean ridge. Nature. 2004;432:167–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yip CK, Kimbrough TG, Felise HB, Vuckovic M, Thomas NA, Pfuetzner RA, et al. Structural characterization of the molecular platform for type III secretion system assembly. Nature. 2005;435:702–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Koch SN, Torres SMF, Plumb DC. Canine and Feline Dermatology Drug Handbook. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Williams M, Lee JC-K, editors. Schooling for Sustainable Development in Chinese Communities: Experience with Younger Children. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hardy K, Kelsey TW. The Shale Gas Economy in the Northeast Pennsylvania Counties. In: Hefley WE, Wang Y, editors. Economics of Unconventional Shale Gas Development: Case Studies and Impacts. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 71–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbiome.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Invasive Asian Hornets Arrive On UK Shores. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Index Digest of the Published Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Volumes 66-70, September 1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Sep. Report No.: 156871.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kennedy KT. A Heuristic Study of Religious Spirituality and Meaningful Work [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hollander S. Is the Field Getting Too Crowded? New York Times. 2001 Sep 9;14NJ7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobiome
ISSN (online)2049-2618

Other styles