How to format your references using the Microbial Informatics and Experimentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Informatics and Experimentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Scully T. Demography: To the limit. Nature. 2012;492:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Stoltz DB, Whitfield JB. Virology. Making nice with viruses. Science. 2009;323:884–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Daw R, Finkelstein J, Helmer M. Chemistry and energy. Nature. 2012;488:293.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mariantoni M, Wang H, Yamamoto T, Neeley M, Bialczak RC, Chen Y, et al. Implementing the quantum von Neumann architecture with superconducting circuits. Science. 2011;334:61–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smith IM, Griffiths DV, Margetts L. Programming the Finite Element Method. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Griffin DE, Oldstone MBA, editors. Measles: Pathogenesis and Control. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Corless RM, Fillion N. Solving Ax = λx. In: Fillion N, editor. A Graduate Introduction to Numerical Methods: From the Viewpoint of Backward Error Analysis. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 239–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Informatics and Experimentation.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Conspiracy Theorists Get Paper Withdrawn Through Bogus Legal Threat. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Issues for Congressional Consideration During Reauthorization of Surface Transportation Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Basik N. An evolutionary approach to intuitionism and moral realism. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Anderson J. A Palestinian Hip-Hop Film. From Israel. New York Times. 2017;:AR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Informatics and Experimentation
ISSN (print)2042-5783

Other styles