How to format your references using the Microbial Informatics and Experimentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Informatics and Experimentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gordon P. Numerical cognition without words: evidence from Amazonia. Science. 2004;306:496–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sprecher SG, Desplan C. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature. 2008;454:533–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Grassly NC, Fraser C, Garnett GP. Host immunity and synchronized epidemics of syphilis across the United States. Nature. 2005;433:417–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Boehmerle W, Huehnchen P, Peruzzaro S, Balkaya M, Endres M. Electrophysiological, behavioral and histological characterization of paclitaxel, cisplatin, vincristine and bortezomib-induced neuropathy in C57Bl/6 mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases & Clinical Challenges. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Chan KW, Raney RB, editors. Pediatric Oncology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ellis JT, Sims RC, Miller CD. Monitoring Microbial Diversity of Bioreactors Using Metagenomic Approaches. In: Wang X, Chen J, Quinn P, editors. Reprogramming Microbial Metabolic Pathways. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 73–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Informatics and Experimentation.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Metallic Glass Alloys Could Be Stronger Than Steel But As Malleable As Putty. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Farmers Home Administration’s ADP Development Project--Current Status and Unresolved Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cornejo VM. Teachers’ perceptions about promoting mental health in the classroom. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. Again: It’s Hillary Rodham Clinton. Got That? New York Times. 1993;:133.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Informatics and Experimentation
ISSN (print)2042-5783

Other styles