How to format your references using the Microbial Drug Resistance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Drug Resistance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucey, P.G. 2009. Planetary science. A lunar waterworld. Science 326:531–532.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stebbins, C.E., and J.E. Galán. 2001. Structural mimicry in bacterial virulence. Nature 412:701–705.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bollasina, M.A., Y. Ming, and V. Ramaswamy. 2011. Anthropogenic aerosols and the weakening of the South Asian summer monsoon. Science 334:502–505.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Behrens, M.R., N. Mutlu, S. Chakraborty, R. Dumitru, W.Z. Jiang, B.J. Lavallee, P.L. Herman, T.E. Clemente, and D.P. Weeks. 2007. Dicamba resistance: enlarging and preserving biotechnology-based weed management strategies. Science 316:1185–1188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Selyanin, M.A., P.Y. Boykov, V.N. Khabarov, and F. Polyak. 2015. Hyaluronic Acid. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Stan-Lotter, H., and S. Fendrihan (eds.). 2012. Adaption of Microbial Life to Environmental Extremes: Novel Research Results and Application. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Myrbostad, E., and K. Venås. 2016. Alloying by Injection of Mg in an Al-Melt. In J.F. Grandfield, and D.G. Eskin (ed.), Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 3 Cast Shop for Aluminum Production. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 28–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Drug Resistance.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. There’s Another Way To Combat Climate Change — But Let’s Not Call It Geoengineering. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Curriculum Case Studies Are of Questionable Quality but Helped Precollege Curriculum Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wonnacott, C.J. 2017. Ambiguity in Theory and Neutrality in Practice: The Allied Intervention and the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia. Doctoral dissertation.George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. 2017. A Love of Science Fiction Collides With a Classic. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Drug Resistance
AbbreviationMicrob. Drug Resist.
ISSN (print)1076-6294
ISSN (online)1931-8448
Microbiology (medical)

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