How to format your references using the Microbial Drug Resistance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Drug Resistance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zheludev, N.I. 2010. Applied physics. The road ahead for metamaterials. Science 328:582–583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpkins, P.G., and V.J. Kuck. 2000. Air entrapment in coatings by way of a tip-streaming meniscus. Nature 403:641–643.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weaver, J.C., T.E. Vaughan, and R.D. Astumian. 2000. Biological sensing of small field differences by magnetically sensitive chemical reactions. Nature 405:707–709.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ahmadi, S., U. Muth-Selbach, A. Lauterbach, P. Lipfert, W.L. Neuhuber, and H.U. Zeilhofer. 2003. Facilitation of spinal NMDA receptor currents by spillover of synaptically released glycine. Science 300:2094–2097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chatterji, S., and P. Hedges. 2005. Loan Workouts and Debt for Equity Swaps. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Murphy, K., and F. Robertson (eds.). 2014. Interventional Neuroradiology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodríguez-de-Pablo, C., M. Popović, A. Savić, J.C. Perry, A. Belloso, T.D. Tomić, and T. Keller. 2016. Post-stroke Robotic Upper-Limb Telerehabilitation Using Serious Games to Increase Patient Motivation: First Results from ArmAssist System Clinical Trial. In A.R. Londral, and P. Encarnação (ed.), Advances in Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics: Revised Selected Papers from the 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX 2014), October 25-26, Rome, Italy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Drug Resistance.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015. Muscle-Building Supplements Raise Testicular Cancer Risk. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Computer Systems: Actions on OMB Recommendations for a Joint Lookout System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivera, C. 2017. The Role of Privacy, Brand Labeling, and Cost on Condom Procurement: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess a University Policy. Doctoral dissertation.University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. 2015. ‘Cheaters’ Give Rise to Cancer. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Drug Resistance
AbbreviationMicrob. Drug Resist.
ISSN (print)1076-6294
ISSN (online)1931-8448
Microbiology (medical)

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