How to format your references using the Microbial Drug Resistance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Drug Resistance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mira-Perez, J. 2000. Spanish university study ignores research. Nature 404:222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maerkl, S.J., and S.R. Quake. 2007. A systems approach to measuring the binding energy landscapes of transcription factors. Science 315:233–237.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarola, V.W., K. Park, and J.K. Jain. 2000. Cooper instability of composite fermions. Nature 406:863–865.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Leutgeb, S., J.K. Leutgeb, C.A. Barnes, E.I. Moser, B.L. McNaughton, and M.-B. Moser. 2005. Independent codes for spatial and episodic memory in hippocampal neuronal ensembles. Science 309:619–623.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M. 2016. Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Capillary Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yang, G.-Z., D. Hawkes, D. Rueckert, A. Noble, and C. Taylor (eds.). 2009. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2009: 12th International Conference, London, UK, September 20-24, 2009, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Apsel, A., X. Wang, and R. Dokania. 2014. Traditional Synchronization in Radio Systems. In X. Wang, and R. Dokania (ed.), Design of Ultra-Low Power Impulse Radios. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 71–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Drug Resistance.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2016. Highly Efficient And Ultra-Cheap Perovskite Solar Cells Announced. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. International Education Assistance: USAID Has Implemented Primary Grade Reading Programs but Has Not Yet Measured Progress toward Its Strategic Goal. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghafoori, H.D. 2010. Working with Muslim children and families: A training program for child welfare social workers. Doctoral dissertation.California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. 2011. Scouting Report. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Drug Resistance
AbbreviationMicrob. Drug Resist.
ISSN (print)1076-6294
ISSN (online)1931-8448
Microbiology (medical)

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