How to format your references using the Microbial Drug Resistance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Drug Resistance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, K. 2013. Neuroscience: off to night school. Nature 497:S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanderson, W.C., and S. Scherbov. 2005. Average remaining lifetimes can increase as human populations age. Nature 435:811–813.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cox, D., E. Meyers, and P. Sinha. 2004. Contextually evoked object-specific responses in human visual cortex. Science 304:115–117.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y., S. Juranek, H. Li, G. Sheng, G.S. Wardle, T. Tuschl, and D.J. Patel. 2009. Nucleation, propagation and cleavage of target RNAs in Ago silencing complexes. Nature 461:754–761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jay, S.A. 2006. High Voltage Electricity Installations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England.
An edited book
Cherif, C. (ed.). 2016. Textile Materials for Lightweight Constructions: Technologies - Methods - Materials - Properties. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Todor, D.A. 2016. Balloon Brachytherapy Physics. In P. Montemaggi, M. Trombetta, and L.W. Brady (ed.), Brachytherapy: An International Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Drug Resistance.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2017. An Astronaut’s View Of Mount Etna’s Recent Volcanic Eruption. Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tajer, S.A. 2010. Topics in MIMO networks. Doctoral dissertation.Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. 2017. MSNBC Surges to an Unfamiliar Spot: No. 1. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Drug Resistance
AbbreviationMicrob. Drug Resist.
ISSN (print)1076-6294
ISSN (online)1931-8448
Microbiology (medical)

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