How to format your references using the Microbial Drug Resistance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Drug Resistance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, R. 2014. Hydrology: When wells run dry. Nature 516:179–180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucht, M., and D. Rosskopf. 2008. Comment on “Genetically determined differences in learning from errors.” Science 321:200; author reply 200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flower, T.P., M. Gribble, and A.R. Ridley. 2014. Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird. Science 344:513–516.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bizzarro, M., D. Ulfbeck, A. Trinquier, K. Thrane, J.N. Connelly, and B.S. Meyer. 2007. Evidence for a late supernova injection of 60Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Science 316:1178–1181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, G. 2008. A Practical Guide to the Wiring Regulations. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Erstad, O., K. Kumpulainen, Å. Mäkitalo, K.C. Schrøder, P. Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, and T. Jóhannsdóttir (eds.). 2016. Learning across Contexts in the Knowledge Society. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Loonen, R.C.G.M. 2015. Bio-inspired Adaptive Building Skins. In F. Pacheco Torgal, J.A. Labrincha, M.V. Diamanti, C.-P. Yu, and H.K. Lee (ed.), Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 115–134.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Drug Resistance.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014. What could Be Causing This Bizarre Bubbling Lake? Available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Proprietary Schools: Poorer Student Outcomes at Schools That Rely More on Federal Student Aid. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fadamin, A. 2017. Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemistry of the Ruthenium Schiff Base Complex [(Saloph)Ru(NO)Cl]. Doctoral dissertation.Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. 2013. Where the Artists Are the Superheroes. New York Times BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Drug Resistance
AbbreviationMicrob. Drug Resist.
ISSN (print)1076-6294
ISSN (online)1931-8448
Microbiology (medical)

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