How to format your references using the Microbial Cell Factories citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Cell Factories. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Koch C. Systems biology. Modular biological complexity. Science. 2012;337:531–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Warren LA, Kauffman ME. Geoscience. Microbial geoengineers. Science. 2003;299:1027–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tuckerman ME, Marx D, Parrinello M. The nature and transport mechanism of hydrated hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Nature. 2002;417:925–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dorgan KM, Jumars PA, Johnson B, Boudreau BP, Landis E. Burrowing mechanics: burrow extension by crack propagation. Nature. 2005;433:475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Deutscher Beton- und Bautechnik-Ver. Beispiele zur Bemessung nach Eurocode 2. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1. Reid C. Global Teachers, Australian Perspectives: Goodbye Mr Chips, Hello Ms Banerjee. Collins J, Singh M, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Selvaratnam T, Pegallapati A, Montelya F, Rodriguez G, Khandan N, Lammers P, et al. Feasibility of Algal Systems for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment. In: Hamdan MO, Hejase HAN, Noura HM, Fardoun AA, editors. ICREGA’14 - Renewable Energy: Generation and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Cell Factories.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Men Who Want Power Over Women Likely To Have Poorer Mental Health: Study [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. SEOG Funds: Information on the Distribution of SEOG Funds to Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Nov. Report No.: PEMD-86-1BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Valeika SR. The epidemiology of varicella under a two -dose vaccination strategy: Results of a mathematical transmission model with a novel strategy of sensitivity analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. White House Memo; President’s Early Troubles Rooted in Party’s Old Strains. New York Times. 1993 Feb 2;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Cell Factories
AbbreviationMicrob. Cell Fact.
ISSN (online)1475-2859
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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