How to format your references using the Methods of Information in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods of Information in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herzberg C. Geochemistry. Food for a volcanic diet. Science 2007;316(5823):378–379
A journal article with 2 authors
Gogotsi Y, Simon P. Materials science. True performance metrics in electrochemical energy storage. Science 2011;334(6058):917–918
A journal article with 3 authors
Takahashi F, Matsushima M, Honkura Y. Simulations of a quasi-Taylor state geomagnetic field including polarity reversals on the Earth Simulator. Science 2005;309(5733):459–461
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moisan N, Malinowski G, Mauchain J, et al. Investigating the role of superdiffusive currents in laser induced demagnetization of ferromagnets with nanoscale magnetic domains. Sci Rep 2014;4:4658

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reed SM, Hrci. The HRCI Official Body of Knowledge. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2017
An edited book
Maes F, ed. Marine Resource Damage Assessment: Liability and Compensation for Environmental Damage. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005
A chapter in an edited book
Karamolegkos P, Maroudas A, Manouselis N. Application Profiling for Rural Communities: eGov Services and Training Resources in Rural Inclusion. In: Sánchez-Alonso S, Athanasiadis IN, eds. Metadata and Semantic Research: 4th International Conference, MTSR 2010, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, October 20-22, 2010. Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:46–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods of Information in Medicine.

Blog post
Evans K. Bookworms Are Nicer, Kinder, And More Empathetic People, According To New Study. IFLScience 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: IRS Needs to Improve Its Processes for Prioritizing and Reporting Performance of Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; June 29, 2016. GAO-16-545

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez ER. Technology and adiposity: Effects of television time, video or computer game time, and computer use on body fat among Latino youth [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Knight M. Ms. Ubiquity. New York Times 2013;MM32

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1; 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods of Information in Medicine
AbbreviationMethods Inf. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-1270
ScopeHealth Informatics
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Health Information Management

Other styles