How to format your references using the Methods of Information in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods of Information in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner MS. Yoichiro Nambu (1921-2015). Nature 2015;524(7566):416
A journal article with 2 authors
Gottifredi V, Prives C. Molecular biology. Getting p53 out of the nucleus. Science 2001;292(5523):1851–1852
A journal article with 3 authors
Pepe F, Ehrenreich D, Meyer MR. Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Nature 2014;513(7518):358–366
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meng X, Guler U, Kildishev AV, Fujita K, Tanaka K, Shalaev VM. Unidirectional spaser in symmetry-broken plasmonic core-shell nanocavity. Sci Rep 2013;3:1241

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum J, Pearl J. Investment Banking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009
An edited book
Li F, Shim K, Zheng K, Liu G, eds. Web Technologies and Applications: 18th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2016, Suzhou, China, September 23-25, 2016. Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao M, Childers BR, Soffa ML. A Framework for Exploring Optimization Properties. In: Moor O de, Schwartzbach MI, eds. Compiler Construction: 18th International Conference, CC 2009, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2009, York, UK, March 22-29, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:32–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods of Information in Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Could Wormholes Give Us The Long-Sought Theory Of Quantum Gravity? IFLScience 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Joint Strike Fighter: Restructuring Places Program on Firmer Footing, but Progress Is Still Lagging. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; May 19, 2011. GAO-11-677T

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon-Owens NL. Southern Virginia Higher Education Center: An exploration of factors affecting organizational leadership [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix; 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. New Stat for a Slugger: Back Page Appearances. New York Times 2017;B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1; 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods of Information in Medicine
AbbreviationMethods Inf. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-1270
ScopeHealth Informatics
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Health Information Management

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