How to format your references using the Methods of Information in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods of Information in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brown RH. Medicine. A reinnervating microRNA. Science 2009 Dec;326 (5959):1494–1495.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hla T, Im D-S. Cell biology. The ABCs of lipophile transport. Science 2009 Feb;323 (5916):883–884.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Abramson J, Paz A, Philipson KD. Structural biology. It’s all in the symmetry. Science 2012 Feb;335 (6069):669–670.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Zhang X, Zou Y, Boccaletti S, Liu Z. Explosive synchronization as a process of explosive percolation in dynamical phase space. Sci. Rep. 2014 Jun;4:5200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ketring KL, Glaze MB. Atlas of Feline Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Claypool M, Uhlig S, editors. Passive and Active Network Measurement: 9th International Conference, PAM 2008, Cleveland, OH, USA, April 29-30, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ahmed SA. Dental Image Registration Using Particle Swarm Optimized for Thin Plate Splines from Semi-automatic Correspondences. In: Hassanien A-E, Grosan C, Fahmy Tolba M, editors. Applications of Intelligent Optimization in Biology and Medicine: Current Trends and Open Problems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016 p. 91–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods of Information in Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Why We Should Mine The Moon. IFLScience 2014; Accessed 2018-10-30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Teacher Quality: Sustained Coordination among Key Federal Education Programs Could Enhance State Efforts to Improve Teacher Quality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Murdock JM. Lethe and the Twin Bodhisattvas of Forgiveness and Forgetfulness. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Hears Medical Device Case. New York Times 2007;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1; 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods of Information in Medicine
AbbreviationMethods Inf. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-1270
ScopeHealth Informatics
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Health Information Management

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