How to format your references using the Methods of Information in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods of Information in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bartal G. Nanophotonics: bright future for hyperbolic chips. Nature 2015;522(7555):160–161
A journal article with 2 authors
Costello EK, Relman DA. Population health: immaturity in the gut microbial community. Nature 2014;510(7505):344–345
A journal article with 3 authors
Singh R, Jamieson A, Cresswell P. GILT is a critical host factor for Listeria monocytogenes infection. Nature 2008;455(7217):1244–1247
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Knittel J, Swaim JD, McAuslan DL, Brawley GA, Bowen WP. Back-scatter based whispering gallery mode sensing. Sci Rep 2013;3:2974

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iyengar SS, Parameshwaran N, Phoha VV, Balakrishnan N, Okoye CD. Fundamentals of Sensor Network Programming. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010
An edited book
Chli M, Wilde P de, eds. Convergence and Knowledge Processing in Multi-Agent Systems. London: Springer; 2009
A chapter in an edited book
Nieves L. Esophageal Cancer: Gastrointestinal Features. In: Wu GY, Selsky N, Grant-Kels JM, eds. Atlas of Dermatological Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2013:11–12

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods of Information in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Researchers Find Link Between DNA Marks And Sexual Orientation. IFLScience 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education Reform: Initial Effects in Four School Districts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; September 26, 1989. PEMD-89-28

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sarantopoulos ND. The relationship between values and leadership styles of nonprofit leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix; 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Imps of the Perverse. New York Times 2011;M250

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1; 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods of Information in Medicine
AbbreviationMethods Inf. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-1270
ScopeHealth Informatics
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Health Information Management

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