How to format your references using the Methods of Information in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods of Information in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilbanks J. Licence restrictions: A fool’s errand. Nature 2013;495(7442):440–441
A journal article with 2 authors
Adams WW, Baughman RH. Retrospective: Richard E. Smalley (1943-2005). Science 2005;310(5756):1916
A journal article with 3 authors
Dietl GP, Herbert GS, Vermeij GJ. Reduced competition and altered feeding behavior among marine snails after a mass extinction. Science 2004;306(5705):2229–2231
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rao Z, Chen F, Cheng H, et al. High-resolution summer precipitation variations in the western Chinese Loess Plateau during the last glacial. Sci Rep 2013;3:2785

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanley W, Pamela B. The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2017
An edited book
Minin IV. Basic Principles of Fresnel Antenna Arrays. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008
A chapter in an edited book
Mackenzie R, Lewis S, Matta BF. Trauma Care Organisation. In: Gullo A, ed. Anaesthesia, Pharmacology, Intensive Care and Emergency A.P.I.C.E: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting - International Symposium on Critical Care Medicine. Milano: Springer; 2014:49–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods of Information in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Uncover Why The Mayan Civilization Died Out. IFLScience 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. IT Supply Chain: National Security-Related Agencies Need to Better Address Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; March 23, 2012. GAO-12-361

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moris FA. International Trade in Research and Development Services and the Activity of MNC Subsidiaries [Doctoral dissertation]. Washington, DC: George Washington University; 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kercher S. Modern Help for the Brokenhearted? It’s Online. New York Times 2017;D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1; 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods of Information in Medicine
AbbreviationMethods Inf. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-1270
ScopeHealth Informatics
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Health Information Management

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