How to format your references using the Methods of Information in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods of Information in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Early detection: Spotting the first signs. Nature 2011;471(7339):S14-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones JH, Handcock MS. Social networks: Sexual contacts and epidemic thresholds. Nature 2003;423(6940):605–6; discussion 606
A journal article with 3 authors
Tosca NJ, Knoll AH, McLennan SM. Water activity and the challenge for life on early Mars. Science 2008;320(5880):1204–1207
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang X, Huong S-M, Chiu ML, Raab-Traub N, Huang E-S. Epidermal growth factor receptor is a cellular receptor for human cytomegalovirus. Nature 2003;424(6947):456–461

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernatz RA. Fourier Series and Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010
An edited book
Carels N, Sujatha M, Bahadur B, eds. Jatropha, Challenges for a New Energy Crop: Volume 1: Farming, Economics and Biofuel. New York, NY: Springer; 2012
A chapter in an edited book
Asatiani R. The Information Structure and Typological Peculiarities of the Georgian Passive Constructions. In: Bezhanishvili G, Löbner S, Marra V, Richter F, eds. Logic, Language, and Computation: 9th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2011, Kutaisi, Georgia, September 26-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:17–34

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods of Information in Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Wet Weather May Genuinely Make Chronic Pain Worse. IFLScience 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S.-Korea Fighter Coproduction Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; April 4, 1990. T-NSIAD-90-29

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne LG. The experience of caring for women with drug or alcohol problems in the general hospital [Doctoral dissertation]. Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University; 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Darwinian Revival With a Feminist Streak. New York Times 2016;C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1; 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods of Information in Medicine
AbbreviationMethods Inf. Med.
ISSN (print)0026-1270
ScopeHealth Informatics
Advanced and Specialised Nursing
Health Information Management

Other styles