How to format your references using the Methods and Applications in Fluorescence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods and Applications in Fluorescence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herschbach D 2000 Kent R. Wilson (1937-2000) Nature 405 902
A journal article with 2 authors
Walker A W and Parkhill J 2013 Microbiology. Fighting obesity with bacteria Science 341 1069–70
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng Y, Maiolino R and Cochrane R 2015 Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies Nature 521 192–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Gu W, Li H, Zhao P, Yu R, Pan G, Gao S, Xie X, Huang A, He L and Wang G 2014 Quantitative proteomic analysis of thylakoid from two microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina) reveals two different high light-responsive strategies Sci. Rep. 4 6661

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schiek B, Rolfes I and Siweris H-J 2005 Noise in High-Frequency Circuits and Oscillators (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Niazi M A 2013 Cognitive Agent-based Computing-I: A Unified Framework for Modeling Complex Adaptive Systems using Agent-based & Complex Network-based Methods vol 1, ed A Hussain (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Kurguzkin M 2006 Evaluation of State of Environment and Monitoring of Hazardous Facilities Ecological Risks Associated with the Destruction of Chemical Weapons NATO Security through Science Series ed V M Kolodkin and W Ruck (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 41–4

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods and Applications in Fluorescence.

Blog post
Andrews R 2016 Researchers Stumble Across Unique Dolphin That Breathes Through Its Mouth IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1999 Airport Improvement Program: Analysis of Discretionary Spending for Fiscal Years 1996-98 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck R E 2012 Examining the relationship between self-initiated expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment among expatriate spouses within nonprofit organizations: A quantitative causal-comparative study Doctoral dissertation (Minneapolis, MN: Capella University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J 2016 Exxon’s Unlikely Enemy New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods and Applications in Fluorescence
AbbreviationMethods Appl. Fluoresc.
ISSN (online)2050-6120

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