How to format your references using the Methods and Applications in Fluorescence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods and Applications in Fluorescence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Braun D M 2012 Plant science. SWEET! The pathway is complete Science 335 173–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Morata G and Struhl G 2014 Developmental biology: Tethered wings Nature 505 162–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Su W, Bagshaw C R and Burley G A 2013 Addressable and unidirectional energy transfer along a DNA three-way junction programmed by pyrrole-imidazole polyamides Sci. Rep. 3 1883
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Davis C H, Li Y, McConnell J R, Frey M M and Hanna E 2005 Snowfall-driven growth in East Antarctic ice sheet mitigates recent sea-level rise Science 308 1898–901

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg M A, Segelnick S L, Insler J S and Kramer S 2015 The Dentist’s Quick Guide to Medical Conditions (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Heinemann G 2015 Social - Local - Mobile: The Future of Location-based Services ed C Gaiser (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Burkhardt C E and Leventhal J J 2008 Time-Dependent States in One Dimension Foundations of Quantum Physics ed J J Leventhal (New York, NY: Springer) pp 1–29

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods and Applications in Fluorescence.

Blog post
Evans K 2016 This Is What Earth Will Look Like In 100 Years – If We’re Lucky IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1999 Year 2000 Computing Challenge: DEA Has Developed Plans and Established Controls for Business Continuity Planning (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kluck M C 2017 You are What You Read: Participation and Emancipation Problematized in Habacuc’s “Exposición #1” Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M 2013 Murder Charge In a Case Tied To Race Issues New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods and Applications in Fluorescence
AbbreviationMethods Appl. Fluoresc.
ISSN (online)2050-6120

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