How to format your references using the Methods and Applications in Fluorescence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methods and Applications in Fluorescence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Becchetti F D 2002 Nuclear fusion. Evidence for nuclear reactions in imploding bubbles Science 295 1850
A journal article with 2 authors
New A M and Lehner B 2015 Systems biology: Network evolution hinges on history Nature 523 297–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Thibodeaux C J, Melançon C E and Liu H-W 2007 Unusual sugar biosynthesis and natural product glycodiversification Nature 446 1008–16
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Okamoto Y K, Kataza H, Honda M, Yamashita T, Onaka T, Watanabe J-I, Miyata T, Sako S, Fujiyoshi T and Sakon I 2004 An early extrasolar planetary system revealed by planetesimal belts in beta Pictoris Nature 431 660–3

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raeburn D 2016 Greek Tragedies as Plays for Performance (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Satapathy S C, Udgata S K and Biswal B N 2014 Proceedings of the International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2013 vol 247 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Baykal C and Yazganoğlu K D 2014 Cutaneous Cysts Clinical Atlas of Skin Tumors ed K D Yazganoğlu (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 125–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methods and Applications in Fluorescence.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2017 Has The Mystery Of Comet 67P’s Oxygen Just Been Explained? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1981 Process Used by Department of Education To Award Contracts for Operation of Indian Education Resource and Evaluation Centers (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gros T R 2009 A templated agarose scaffold for axon guidance in the central and peripheral nervous system Doctoral dissertation (La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M 2017 Rebuked Twice by Supreme Court, North Carolina Republicans Are Unfazed New York Times A22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMethods and Applications in Fluorescence
AbbreviationMethods Appl. Fluoresc.
ISSN (online)2050-6120

Other styles