How to format your references using the Journal of Geographical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geographical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Shea JN (2005) Applied physics. Enhanced: molecular orbitals tell the story. Science 310:453–454
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye C, Gay N (2003) Epidemiology. Modeling the SARS epidemic. Science 300:1884–1885
A journal article with 3 authors
Ravishankara AR, Daniel JS, Portmann RW (2009) Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science 326:123–125
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yang H, Jeffrey PD, Miller J, et al (2002) BRCA2 function in DNA binding and recombination from a BRCA2-DSS1-ssDNA structure. Science 297:1837–1848

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carter KB (2014) Actionable Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Barbancho AM (2013) Database of Piano Chords: An Engineering View of Harmony. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Nakov P (2015) Web as a Corpus: Going Beyond the n-gram. In: Braslavski P, Karpov N, Worring M, et al. (eds) Information Retrieval: 8th Russian Summer School, RuSSIR 2014, Nizhniy, Novgorod, Russia, August 18-22, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 185–228

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geographical Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) World’s First Malaria Vaccine Gets Green Light. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Strategic Planning Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs across Multiple Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee T (2013) Implementation of an after-school program to reduce the suicide risk of transgender youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2005) Court to Rule on What Constitutes Employer Retaliation. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Shea 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Dye and Gay 2003; O’Shea 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dye and Gay 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geographical Systems
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1435-5930
ISSN (online)1435-5949
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles