How to format your references using the Journal of Geographical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geographical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Werner MJ (2014) Perspective: protect the USA from UVA. Nature 515:S126
A journal article with 2 authors
Horner PJ, Gage FH (2000) Regenerating the damaged central nervous system. Nature 407:963–970
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun X, Mariani FV, Martin GR (2002) Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development. Nature 418:501–508
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Graham DW, Blichert-Toft J, Russo CJ, et al (2006) Cryptic striations in the upper mantle revealed by hafnium isotopes in southeast Indian ridge basalts. Nature 440:199–202

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Port M, Samuels M (2009) The Think Big Manifesto. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kangas A, Maltamo M (eds) (2006) Forest Inventory: Methodology and Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Buckley PF, Foster A (2014) Schizophrenia. In: Lammert E, Zeeb M (eds) Metabolism of Human Diseases: Organ Physiology and Pathophysiology. Springer, Vienna, pp 17–22

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geographical Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Fruit Flies Know How To Sniff Out Antioxidants. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Information Technology: HUD’s Fiscal Year 2011 Expenditure Plan Satisfies Statutory Conditions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Comorau N (2009) Postcolonial refashionings: Reading forms, reading novels. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside K (2017) Foes Get Together, and No One’s Fighting Like …. New York Times SP11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Werner 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Horner and Gage 2000; Werner 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Horner and Gage 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Graham et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geographical Systems
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1435-5930
ISSN (online)1435-5949
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles