How to format your references using the Journal of Geographical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geographical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Körding K (2007) Decision theory: what “should” the nervous system do? Science 318:606–610
A journal article with 2 authors
Anikeeva P, Koppes RA (2015) BIOENGINEERING. Restoring the sense of touch. Science 350:274–275
A journal article with 3 authors
Rideout WM 3rd, Eggan K, Jaenisch R (2001) Nuclear cloning and epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. Science 293:1093–1098
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jutzi P, Mix A, Rummel B, et al (2004) The (Me5C5)Si+ cation: a stable derivative of HSi+. Science 305:849–851

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz RA, Carew MG, Maksimenko T (2010) Micro Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mjølsnes SF (ed) (2015) Technology and Practice of Passwords: International Conference on Passwords, PASSWORDS’14, Trondheim, Norway, December 8-10, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Píbil R, Novák P, Brom C, Gemrot J (2012) Notes on Pragmatic Agent-Programming with Jason. In: Dennis L, Boissier O, Bordini RH (eds) Programming Multi-Agent Systems: 9th International Workshop, ProMAS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 58–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geographical Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Four Rare White Lion Cubs Born. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/four-rare-white-lion-cubs-born/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Problems Associated With D.C. Public Schools Payroll Reporting System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley KM (2008) Diversity and evolution of 185/333, an immune -related gene family from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Namath Has His Own Memories of ’65. New York Times B18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Körding 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Körding 2007; Anikeeva and Koppes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anikeeva and Koppes 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Jutzi et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geographical Systems
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1435-5930
ISSN (online)1435-5949
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles