How to format your references using the Journal of Geographical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geographical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cuffey KM (2011) Geophysics. Antarctic ice flow revealed. Science 333:1386–1387
A journal article with 2 authors
Sarewitz D, Nelson R (2008) Three rules for technological fixes. Nature 456:871–872
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim J-H, Yoneya M, Yokoyama H (2002) Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment. Nature 420:159–162
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alleman M, Sidorenko L, McGinnis K, et al (2006) An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is required for paramutation in maize. Nature 442:295–298

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn G, Sansone EB (2012) Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Knahr K (ed) (2011) Tribology in Total Hip Arthroplasty. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ghielmetti C, Giberti H, Resta F (2011) Modeling and Testing of a Concrete Pumping Group Control System. In: Vasques CMA, Dias Rodrigues J (eds) Vibration and Structural Acoustics Analysis: Current Research and Related Technologies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 99–119

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geographical Systems.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) Villagers Attack Mother And Child Orangutan Fleeing From Wildfires. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) For-Profit Schools: Large Schools and Schools that Specialize in Healthcare Are More Likely to Rely Heavily on Federal Student Aid. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford A (2015) Internationalization Policy at the Genba: Exploring the Implementation of Social Science English-Taught Undergraduate Degree Programs in Three Japanese Universities. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2007) Fast Cellphones Aim To Unseat Laptops. New York Times SPG9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cuffey 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Sarewitz and Nelson 2008; Cuffey 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sarewitz and Nelson 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Alleman et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geographical Systems
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1435-5930
ISSN (online)1435-5949
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles