How to format your references using the Journal of Geographical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geographical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levermann A (2014) Climate economics: make supply chains climate-smart. Nature 506:27–29
A journal article with 2 authors
Brockes JP, Kumar A (2005) Appendage regeneration in adult vertebrates and implications for regenerative medicine. Science 310:1919–1923
A journal article with 3 authors
McDonald JJ, Teder-Sälejärvi WA, Hillyard SA (2000) Involuntary orienting to sound improves visual perception. Nature 407:906–908
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Quan Q, Wang C, He N, et al (2014) Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China. Sci Rep 4:6584

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bliesner DM (2006) Establishing a CGMP Laboratory Audit System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pielke R, Klein RA (eds) (2010) Presidential Science Advisors: Perspectives and Reflections on Science, Policy and Politics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Li W, Wu Y, Goh M (2015) Heuristic Approach. In: Wu Y, Goh M (eds) Planning and Scheduling for Maritime Container Yards: Supporting and Facilitating the Global Supply Network. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geographical Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Could Aspirin Reverse Increased Cancer Risk In Overweight People? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Educational Programs in the Public Schools of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hrivnak GA (2009) Extending a model of leader -member exchange development: Individual and dyadic effects of personality, similarity and liking. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis G (2012) Franz Schreker’s Triumphant Return. New York Times 0

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levermann 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brockes and Kumar 2005; Levermann 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brockes and Kumar 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Quan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geographical Systems
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1435-5930
ISSN (online)1435-5949
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles