How to format your references using the Metabolism Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolism Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cortada X. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Painting the genome for the public. Science 2011;331:548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Contreras JL, Reichman JH. DATA ACCESS. Sharing by design: Data and decentralized commons. Science 2015;350:1312–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalab P, Weis K, Heald R. Visualization of a Ran-GTP gradient in interphase and mitotic Xenopus egg extracts. Science 2002;295:2452–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mayer L, Quinn T, Wadsley J, Stadel J. Formation of giant planets by fragmentation of protoplanetary disks. Science 2002;298:1756–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin WC. Wave Propagation in Drilling, Well Logging and Reservoir Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Paul G, Vaudenay S, editors. Progress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2013: 14th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Mumbai, India, December 7-10, 2013. Proceedings. vol. 8250. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Grushko TA, Olopade OI. Genetic Markers in Breast Tumors with Hereditary Predisposition. In: Bronchud MH, Foote MA, Giaccone G, Olopade O, Workman P, editors. Principles of Molecular Oncology, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008, p. 85–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolism Open.

Blog post
Luntz S. Common Gene Variations Account for Half of Autism Variation. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loan Insurance Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez Grijalva VM. Biological and physical-chemical methods for treatment of semiconductor manufacturing effluents. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Homans C. A Soap Opera on the High Seas. New York Times 2012:MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolism Open
ISSN (print)2589-9368

Other styles