How to format your references using the Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chipman A. A commodity no more. Nature 2007;449:131.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiu C, Weliky M. Neuroscience. Synaptic modification by vision. Science 2003;300:1890–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cronin TW, Caldwell RL, Marshall J. Sensory adaptation. Tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp. Nature 2001;411:547–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Petrović AP, Paré A, Paudel TR, Lee K, Holmes S, Barnes CHW, et al. Long-range electronic reconstruction to a dxz,yz-dominated Fermi surface below the LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ interface. Sci Rep 2014;4:5338.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohan N. Advanced Electric Drives. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Chapman BM, Massaioli F, Müller MS, Rorro M, editors. OpenMP in a Heterogeneous World: 8th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2012, Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2012. Proceedings. vol. 7312. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Fortunati L, Manganelli AM, Law P-L, Yang S. The “Mobile” Face of Contemporary China. In: Law P-L, editor. New Connectivities in China: Virtual, Actual and Local Interactions, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012, p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolism.

Blog post
Fang J. Mini Human Stomachs Grown in the Lab. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Mature Critical Technologies Needed to Reduce Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wall JD. The Effects of Acute L-Dopa on Brux-like and Masticatory Motor Patterns: EMG Phase Analysis in Rats. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets’ Slide Drags On As a Lead Vanishes. New York Times 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolism
ISSN (print)0026-0495
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles