How to format your references using the Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Maille P. Microbiology: Fungus against the wall. Nature 2015;521:168–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soubeyrand B, Plotkin SA. Microbial evolution: antitoxin vaccines and pathogen virulence. Nature 2002;417:609–10; discussion 610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sempere T, Hartley A, Roperch P. Comment on “Rapid uplift of the Altiplano revealed through 13C-18O bonds in paleosol carbonates.” Science 2006;314:760; author reply 760.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang BJ, Hwang T, Nam J-D, Suhr J, Kim KJ. Noncovalently assembled nanotubular porous layers for delaying of heating surface failure. Sci Rep 2014;4:6817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paris JL, Paris JL. CliffsNotes® Praxis II®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Bersini H, Carneiro J, editors. Artificial Immune Systems: 5th International Conference, ICARIS 2006, Oeiras, Portugal, September 4-6, 2006. Proceedings. vol. 4163. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Yan C, Li T, Huang Y, Gan Y. Hmfs: Efficient Support of Small Files Processing over HDFS. In: Sun X-H, Qu W, Stojmenovic I, Zhou W, Li Z, Guo H, et al., editors. Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 14th International Conference, ICA3PP 2014, Dalian, China, August 24-27, 2014. Proceedings, Part II, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 54–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Metabolism.

Blog post
Fang J. Origami Robot Folds Itself, Then Just Crawls Away. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Remains Behind Schedule. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murillo K. An analysis of California community college budget policy key components in multicollege districts. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Crossing to Grief’s Other Side. New York Times 2017:C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMetabolism
ISSN (print)0026-0495
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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