How to format your references using the Journal of Retailing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Retailing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chisholm, S. W. (2000), “Stirring Times in the Southern Ocean,” Nature, 407 (6805), 685–87.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elowitz, Michael and Wendell A. Lim (2010), “Build Life to Understand It,” Nature, 468 (7326), 889–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zou, Haibo, Alan Zindler, and Yaoling Niu (2002), “Constraints on Melt Movement beneath the East Pacific Rise from 230Th-238U Disequilibrium,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 295 (5552), 107–10.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mazel, C. H., T. W. Cronin, R. L. Caldwell, and N. J. Marshall (2004), “Fluorescent Enhancement of Signaling in a Mantis Shrimp,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 303 (5654), 51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, Michael and Gentry Bieker (2009), Mastering, Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Liu, Zhanwen, ed. (2009), Essentials of Chinese Medicine, London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Granados, Alejandro, Erik Mayer, Christine Norton, David Ellis, Mohammad Mobasheri, Naomi Low-Beer, Jenny Higham, Roger Kneebone, and Fernando Bello (2014), “Haptics Modelling for Digital Rectal Examinations,” in Biomedical Simulation: 6th International Symposium, ISBMS 2014, Strasbourg, France, October 16-17, 2014. Proceedings, Fernando Bello and Stéphane Cotin, eds., Cham: Springer International Publishing, 40–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Retailing.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin (2016), “‘Us Versus Them’ Root Of Racist Behavior Found In Old World Primates,” IFLScience, IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992), “Federal Research: System for Reimbursing Universities’ Indirect Costs Should Be Reevaluated,” RCED-92-203, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Keep, Andrew W. (2013), “A Nanopass Framework for Commercial Compiler Development,” doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James (2017), “‘24’ Reboot Has a Dire Ring to It,” New York Times, , February 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chisholm 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chisholm 2000; Elowitz and Lim 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elowitz and Lim 2010)
  • Three authors: (Zou, Zindler, and Niu 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mazel et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Retailing
AbbreviationJ. Retail.
ISSN (print)0022-4359

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