How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turekian, K.K. Obituary: Harmon Craig (1926-2003). Nature 2003, 423, 701.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, J.; Segall, P. Testing Time-Predictable Earthquake Recurrence by Direct Measurement of Strain Accumulation and Release. Nature 2002, 419, 287–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao, Y.; Chen, G.; Chan, R.H.M. Naming Game on Networks: Let Everyone Be Both Speaker and Hearer. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6149.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y.; Cao, H.; Zhang, G.; Bougouffa, S.; Lee, O.O.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Qian, P.-Y. Autotrophic Microbe Metagenomes and Metabolic Pathways Differentiate Adjacent Red Sea Brine Pools. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1748.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collins, D. Magic in the Ancient Greek World; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470696453.
An edited book
Graph Drawing: 21st International Symposium, GD 2013, Bordeaux, France, September 23-25, 2013, Revised Selected Papers; Wismath, S., Wolff, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2013; Vol. 8242; ISBN 9783319038407.
A chapter in an edited book
Beitzel, K.; Imhoff, A.B. Post-traumatic Shoulder Stiffness. In Shoulder Stiffness: Current Concepts and Concerns; Itoi, E., Arce, G., Bain, G.I., Diercks, R.L., Guttmann, D., Imhoff, A.B., Mazzocca, A.D., Sugaya, H., Yoo, Y.-S., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; pp. 45–48 ISBN 9783662463697.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Quantum Vibrations Controlled For The First Time Ever, Could Help Find Gravitational Waves (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The President’s Decision to Order a Chinese Company’s Divestiture of a Recently Acquired U.S. Aircraft Parts Manufacturer; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, K.M. Meanings of “Design” in Instructional Technology: A Conceptual Analysis Based on the Field’s Foundational Literature. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ember, S.; Harris, G. Wall St. Journal Reviews Articles by Fired Reporter. New York Times 2017, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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