How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steitz, T.A. Retrospective. Frederic M. Richards (1925-2009). Science 2009, 323, 1181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knaden, M.; Hansson, B.S. Neuroscience. Specialized but Flexible. Science 2013, 339, 151–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levine, E.S.; Blitz, L.; Heiles, C. The Spiral Structure of the Outer Milky Way in Hydrogen. Science 2006, 312, 1773–1777.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kramer, C.; Loros, J.J.; Dunlap, J.C.; Crosthwaite, S.K. Role for Antisense RNA in Regulating Circadian Clock Function in Neurospora Crassa. Nature 2003, 421, 948–952.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu, L.-Y.; Wang, W. Microfluidics for Advanced Functional Polymeric Materials; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; ISBN 9783527803637.
An edited book
Computer Vision – ACCV 2010: 10th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Queenstown, New Zealand, November 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part III; Kimmel, R., Klette, R., Sugimoto, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 6494; ISBN 9783642193170.
A chapter in an edited book
Barnett, A.G.; Dobson, A.J. Controlling for Season. In Analysing Seasonal Health Data; Dobson, A.J., Ed.; Statistics for Biology and Health; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 129–150 ISBN 9783642107474.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
Andrews, R. One-Third Of America Declares “We Are Still In” Paris Agreement Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Station: Status of Efforts to Determine Commercial Potential; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cheung, M. An Integrated Change Model in Project Management. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Anti-Semitic Violence. New York Times 2002, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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