How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. Deputies Caught on the Wrong Side of the Law. Nature 2001, 411, 876.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gollisch, T.; Meister, M. Rapid Neural Coding in the Retina with Relative Spike Latencies. Science 2008, 319, 1108–1111.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsushima, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Watanabe, T. Greater Disruption Due to Failure of Inhibitory Control on an Ambiguous Distractor. Science 2006, 314, 1786–1788.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Argo, A.M.; Odzak, J.F.; Lai, F.S.; Gates, B.C. Observation of Ligand Effects during Alkene Hydrogenation Catalysed by Supported Metal Clusters. Nature 2002, 415, 623–626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Recho, N. Fracture Mechanics and Crack Growth; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118387184.
An edited book
Mediated Identities and New Journalism in the Arab World: Mapping the “Arab Spring”; Douai, A., Ben Moussa, M., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781137581402.
A chapter in an edited book
Curto, P.; Mamede, N.; Baptista, J. Assisting European Portuguese Teaching: Linguistic Features Extraction and Automatic Readability Classifier. In Computer Supported Education: 7th International Conference, CSEDU 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 23-25, 2015, Revised Selected Papers; Zvacek, S., Restivo, M.T., Uhomoibhi, J., Helfert, M., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 81–96 ISBN 9783319295848.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. This Robotic Assassin Will Hunt And Kill Starfish That Are Destroying The Great Barrier Reef Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Motor Carrier Safety: A Statistical Approach Will Better Identify Commercial Carriers That Pose High Crash Risks Than Does the Current Federal Approach; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hantgan, A. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. There’s Nothing Like a Dame. New York Times 1992, 729.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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