How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Selker, E.U. Molecular biology. A self-help guide for a trim genome. Science 2003, 300, 1517–1518.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martinez, G.J.; Rao, A. Immunology. Cooperative transcription factor complexes in control. Science 2012, 338, 891–892.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boguski, M.S.; Mandl, K.D.; Sukhatme, V.P. Drug discovery. Repurposing with a difference. Science 2009, 324, 1394–1395.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thomas, D.W.; Blondel, J.; Perret, P.; Lambrechts, M.M.; Speakman, J.R. Energetic and fitness costs of mismatching resource supply and demand in seasonally breeding birds. Science 2001, 291, 2598–2600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Declerck, P. Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012; ISBN 9781118579688.
An edited book
35th Hemophilia Symposium: Hamburg 2004; Scharrer, I., Schramm, W., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; ISBN 9783540285434.
A chapter in an edited book
Böcker, S.; Baumbach, J. Cluster Editing. In The Nature of Computation. Logic, Algorithms, Applications: 9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, Milan, Italy, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings; Bonizzoni, P., Brattka, V., Löwe, B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 33–44 ISBN 9783642390524.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
Hale, T. Here’s How Scientists Collect A Spider’s Silk Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Mediation Board: Progress Made on Some GAO Recommendations to Strengthen Operations, but Key Controls Continue to Be Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hebel, O. Parental involvement in the individual educational program for Israeli students with disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Coaches Come and Go, Except JoePa. New York Times 2010, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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