How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe, H. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes. Nature 2000, 404, 533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burtsev, M.; Turchin, P. Evolution of cooperative strategies from first principles. Nature 2006, 440, 1041–1044.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lonsdorf, E.V.; Eberly, L.E.; Pusey, A.E. Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees. Nature 2004, 428, 715–716.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Luterbacher, J.; Dietrich, D.; Xoplaki, E.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500. Science 2004, 303, 1499–1503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mascia, L. Polymers in Industry from A-Z; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783527644032.
An edited book
Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment; Saudubray, J.-M., Baumgartner, M.R., Walter, J., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016; ISBN 9783662497692.
A chapter in an edited book
Cohen, R.; Wang, T. GUI Design for Android Apps, Part 4: Graphic Interface and Touchscreen Input. In GUI Design for Android Apps; Wang, T., Ed.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2014; pp. 105–133 ISBN 9781484203835.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
Fang, J. Polar Bears are Moving North Where There’s Year-Round Sea Ice (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Immigration Benefits System: Better Informed Decision Making Needed on Transformation Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, C. The Crowd. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Next Chicago School Crisis: Pension Fund. New York Times 2012, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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