How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perepezko, J.H. Materials Science. The Hotter the Engine, the Better. Science 2009, 326, 1068–1069.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosen, E.D.; Spiegelman, B.M. Adipocytes as Regulators of Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis. Nature 2006, 444, 847–853.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blackburn, E.H.; Epel, E.S.; Lin, J. Human Telomere Biology: A Contributory and Interactive Factor in Aging, Disease Risks, and Protection. Science 2015, 350, 1193–1198.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jackson, G.S.; Beck, J.A.; Navarrete, C.; Brown, J.; Sutton, P.M.; Contreras, M.; Collinge, J. HLA-DQ7 Antigen and Resistance to Variant CJD. Nature 2001, 414, 269–270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, J. The Utopian Globalists; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, 2013; ISBN 9781118318164.
An edited book
Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks: The 8th China Conference, CWSN 2014, Xi’an, China, October 31--November 2, 2014. Revised Selected Papers; Sun, L., Ma, H., Fang, D., Niu, J., Wang, W., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015; Vol. 501; ISBN 9783662469804.
A chapter in an edited book
König, R.; König, D.; Neumayer, K.H. Station Coordinates and Low Degree Harmonics with Daily Resolution from a GPS/CHAMP Integrated Solution and with Weekly Resolution from a LAGEOS-Only Solution. In Geodetic Reference Frames: IAG Symposium Munich, Germany, 9-14 October 2006; Drewes, H., Ed.; International Association of Geodesy Symposia; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 31–38 ISBN 9783642008597.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How Spiders Spin Electrically Charged Threads Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yamada, M. The Role of the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE2 (TIR2) Gene in Auxin Synthesis in Arabidopsis. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. Feeling Cornered, Coal Industry Borrows From Big Tobacco’s Playbook, Activists Say. New York Times 2016, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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