How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, F.S. Retrospective: Victor A. McKusick (1921-2008). Science 2008, 321, 925.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eaton, D.W.; Frederiksen, A. Seismic evidence for convection-driven motion of the North American plate. Nature 2007, 446, 428–431.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, M.; Pastor-Pareja, J.C.; Xu, T. Interaction between Ras(V12) and scribbled clones induces tumour growth and invasion. Nature 2010, 463, 545–548.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, C.; Hong, B.; Choi, J.M.; Kim, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Ishimi, Y.; Enomoto, T.; Tada, S.; Kim, Y.; Cho, Y. Structural basis for inhibition of the replication licensing factor Cdt1 by geminin. Nature 2004, 430, 913–917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doyle, J.F. Modern Experimental Stress Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470861585.
An edited book
Corporate Governance in Africa: Assessing Implementation and Ethical Perspectives; Howell, K.E., Sorour, M.K., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781137566997.
A chapter in an edited book
Farhan-Hassan, H.; Gulevich, D.R.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Koshelets, V.P.; Kusmartsev, F.V. Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) Made with the Fluxon Cloning Circuits. In Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation: Generation, Detection and Applications; Pereira, M.F., Shulika, O., Eds.; NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011; pp. 29–41 ISBN 9789400707689.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Claim That DNA Hinting At Ancient Cereal Trade In Britain Is A Modern Contaminant Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology Management: Census Bureau Has Implemented Many Key Practices, but Additional Actions Are Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garza-Meza, L.E. Photography as a spiritual technique. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. Late-Night Successor to Colbert Is Canceled. New York Times 2016, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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