How to format your references using the Membranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Membranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rapoport, T.A. Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial plasma membranes. Nature 2007, 450, 663–669.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hammerl, G.; Spaldin, N. Physics. Shedding light on oxide interfaces. Science 2011, 332, 922–923.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qian, L.; Winfree, E.; Bruck, J. Neural network computation with DNA strand displacement cascades. Nature 2011, 475, 368–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shlyk-Kerner, O.; Samish, I.; Kaftan, D.; Holland, N.; Sai, P.S.M.; Kless, H.; Scherz, A. Protein flexibility acclimatizes photosynthetic energy conversion to the ambient temperature. Nature 2006, 442, 827–830.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Somjit, N.; Robertson, I.; Chongcheawchamnan, M. Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Design for Wireless Communications; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781118917312.
An edited book
Unifying the Philosophy of Truth; Achourioti, T., Galinon, H., Martínez Fernández, J., Fujimoto, K., Eds.; Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; Vol. 36; ISBN 9789401796729.
A chapter in an edited book
Chimphango, S.B.M.; Belane, A.; Naab, J.B.; Tanzubil, P.B.; Asiwe, J.A.N.; Ndakidemi, P.A.; van Heerden, R.P.D.; Dakora, F.D. Multi-Factor Approach to Identifying Cowpea Genotypes with Superior Symbiotic Traits and Higher Yield for Africa. In Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Towards Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Agriculture: Proceedings of the 15th International Nitrogen Fixation Congress and the 12th International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation; Dakora, F.D., Chimphango, S.B.M., Valentine, A.J., Elmerich, C., Newton, W.E., Eds.; Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; pp. 23–24 ISBN 9781402082511.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Membranes.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Ghost ships: Why Are World War II Naval Wrecks Vanishing In Indonesia? (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Aging Federal Laboratories Need Repairs and Upgrades; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodwin, R.H. Case study of the voluntary student transfer program: The perspectives of African American students and parent participants in one midwestern school district. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Branch, J.; Weiser, B. Ex-Player Charged in Sale of Pills to Boogaard. New York Times 2014, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMembranes
AbbreviationMembranes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2077-0375
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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