How to format your references using the Medicine in Microecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine in Microecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. “Quiet revolution” in chemistry could revive public and private sectors. Nature 2000;406:807–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorostiza P, Isacoff EY. Optical switches for remote and noninvasive control of cell signaling. Science 2008;322:395–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrew TL, Tsai H-Y, Menon R. Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning. Science 2009;324:917–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sarkar I, Hauber I, Hauber J, Buchholz F. HIV-1 proviral DNA excision using an evolved recombinase. Science 2007;316:1912–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBain GD. Theory of Lift. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Matthäus-Maier I, Pischke JD von, editors. Microfinance Investment Funds: Leveraging Private Capital for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Banerjee A, Dutta P. Fuzzy-Controlled Source-Initiated Multicasting (FSIM) in Ad Hoc Networks. In: Janowski T, Mohanty H, editors. Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 6th International Conference, ICDCIT 2010, Bhubaneswar, India, February 15-17, 2010. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine in Microecology.

Blog post
Andrew E. No Bones About It: Sharks Evolved Cartilage For A Reason. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Access to Arts Education: Inclusion of Additional Questions in Education’s Planned Research Would Help Explain Why Instruction Time Has Decreased for Some Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Castro Deller E. Recognizing signs of dementia: A curriculum for child welfare workers. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times 1994:1312.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine in Microecology
ISSN (print)2590-0978

Other styles