How to format your references using the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patten, Lord Europe Pays the Price for Spending Less. Nature 2006, 441, 691–693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant, M.R.; Jones, J.D.G. Hormone (Dis)Harmony Moulds Plant Health and Disease. Science 2009, 324, 750–752.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laland, K.N.; Odling-Smee, J.; Feldman, M.W. Causing a Commotion. Nature 2004, 429, 609.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shu, X.; Royant, A.; Lin, M.Z.; Aguilera, T.A.; Lev-Ram, V.; Steinbach, P.A.; Tsien, R.Y. Mammalian Expression of Infrared Fluorescent Proteins Engineered from a Bacterial Phytochrome. Science 2009, 324, 804–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gianni, R. Responsibility and Freedom; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119277354.
An edited book
Low-Dimensional Functional Materials; Egger, R., Matrasulov, D., Rakhimov, K., Eds.; NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; ISBN 9789400766174.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, M.C. Kinematically Detected Halo Streams. In Tidal Streams in the Local Group and Beyond: Observations and Implications; Newberg, H.J., Carlin, J.L., Eds.; Astrophysics and Space Science Library; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 113–139 ISBN 9783319193359.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Identify Single Protein That Determines Whether Or Not You Are Susceptible To Stress Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: Management Challenges Remain for the Transportation Security Administration’s Secure Flight Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gage, J.D. An Inconsistency-Based Approach for Sensing Assessment in Unknown Environments. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times 2017, MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Sciences
AbbreviationMed. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3271

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