How to format your references using the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood, J.L. Organic Chemistry: Collaborative Synthesis. Nature 2014, 509, 293–294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spencer, J.R.; Denk, T. Formation of Iapetus’ Extreme Albedo Dichotomy by Exogenically Triggered Thermal Ice Migration. Science 2010, 327, 432–435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mungall, J.E.; Ames, D.E.; Hanley, J.J. Geochemical Evidence from the Sudbury Structure for Crustal Redistribution by Large Bolide Impacts. Nature 2004, 429, 546–548.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stegman, D.R.; Jellinek, A.M.; Zatman, S.A.; Baumgardner, J.R.; Richards, M.A. An Early Lunar Core Dynamo Driven by Thermochemical Mantle Convection. Nature 2003, 421, 143–146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, C.L.; Narayanamurthy, V.; Simha, K.R.Y. Applied Impact Mechanics; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119241829.
An edited book
Optical Properties of Advanced Materials; Aoyagi, Y., Kajikawa, K., Eds.; Springer Series in Materials Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 168; ISBN 9783642335266.
A chapter in an edited book
Gault, D.; Cannell, K.; Cimolini, P.; D’Souza, M.; St. Hilaire, T. SQL Workshop. In Beginning Oracle Application Express 4.2; Cannell, K., Cimolini, P., D’Souza, M., St. Hilaire, T., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2013; pp. 37–54 ISBN 9781430257349.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Alternative Therapies: What’s The Harm? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office DOD Acquisition: Case Study of the MILSTAR Satellite Communications System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, J.I. Analysis of the Role of the Jackson Prairie in Prehistoric/Protohistoric Settlement Patterns Using Survey Data from the Bienville National Forest. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herszenhorn, D.M. A Year After Seizing Crimea, Putin Celebrates as Ukraine Seethes. New York Times 2015, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Sciences
AbbreviationMed. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3271

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