How to format your references using the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macrakis, K. Science and the Stasi. Nature 2009, 461, 594–595.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirey, P.D.; Lamberti, G.A. Regulate Trade in Rare Plants. Nature 2011, 469, 465–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Șenbabaoğlu, Y.; Michailidis, G.; Li, J.Z. Critical Limitations of Consensus Clustering in Class Discovery. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6207.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wannamaker, P.E.; Caldwell, T.G.; Jiracek, G.R.; Maris, V.; Hill, G.J.; Ogawa, Y.; Bibby, H.M.; Bennie, S.L.; Heise, W. Fluid and Deformation Regime of an Advancing Subduction System at Marlborough, New Zealand. Nature 2009, 460, 733–736.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ancheyta, J. Modeling and Simulation of Catalytic Reactors for Petroleum Refining; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9780470933565.
An edited book
RNA Metabolism in Trypanosomes; Bindereif, A., Ed.; Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 28; ISBN 9783642286865.
A chapter in an edited book
Libkin, L. Embedded Finite Models and Constraint Databases. In Finite Model Theory and Its Applications; Kolaitis, P.G., Libkin, L., Marx, M., Spencer, J., Vardi, M.Y., Venema, Y., Weinstein, S., Eds.; Texts in Theoretical Computer Science an EATCS Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 257–337 ISBN 9783540004288.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Antibody Injections Could Be Stepping Stone To HIV Vaccine Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tax Systems Modernization: Unmanaged Risks Threaten Success; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Papacostaki, M. Under the Black Sun. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, M.; Protess, B. Outline Fails to Mention Loophole for the Very Rich. New York Times 2017, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Sciences
AbbreviationMed. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3271

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