How to format your references using the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graddol, D. The future of language. Science 2004, 303, 1329–1331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharp, W.D.; Clague, D.A. 50-Ma initiation of Hawaiian-Emperor bend records major change in Pacific plate motion. Science 2006, 313, 1281–1284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Talkington, M.W.T.; Siuzdak, G.; Williamson, J.R. An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit. Nature 2005, 438, 628–632.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biskup, C.; Kusch, J.; Schulz, E.; Nache, V.; Schwede, F.; Lehmann, F.; Hagen, V.; Benndorf, K. Relating ligand binding to activation gating in CNGA2 channels. Nature 2007, 446, 440–443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai, C.S. Biomacromolecules; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006; ISBN 9780470080122.
An edited book
Sustained Simulation Performance 2015: Proceedings of the joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance, University of Stuttgart (HLRS) and Tohoku University, 2015; Resch, M.M., Bez, W., Focht, E., Kobayashi, H., Qi, J., Roller, S., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319203393.
A chapter in an edited book
Hubey, H.M. Chance Discovery. In Chance Discoveries in Real World Decision Making: Data-based Interaction of Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence; Ohsawa, Y., Tsumoto, S., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 49–68 ISBN 9783540343523.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. Female Sperm Whales Have Best Friends Too (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKinley, K.J. Exploring the efficiency and effectiveness of teacher selection tools: The effects on the total group with a focus on the experience sub-groups. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker, K.; Schweber, N. A Woman Called ‘Sweet and Shy,’ Now Accused of Killing Her Newborn. New York Times 2015, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Sciences
AbbreviationMed. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3271

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