How to format your references using the Medical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howell, P. Listen to the lessons of The King’s Speech. Nature 2011, 470, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whorton, M.R.; MacKinnon, R. X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex. Nature 2013, 498, 190–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parkin, S.S.P.; Hayashi, M.; Thomas, L. Magnetic domain-wall racetrack memory. Science 2008, 320, 190–194.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bouillet, P.; Purton, J.F.; Godfrey, D.I.; Zhang, L.-C.; Coultas, L.; Puthalakath, H.; Pellegrini, M.; Cory, S.; Adams, J.M.; Strasser, A. BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bim is required for apoptosis of autoreactive thymocytes. Nature 2002, 415, 922–926.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rich, P. Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118105887.
An edited book
Model Driven Architecture – Foundations and Applications: 4th European Conference, ECMDA-FA 2008, Berlin, Germany, June 9-13, 2008. Proceedings; Schieferdecker, I., Hartman, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; Vol. 5095; ISBN 9783540690955.
A chapter in an edited book
Chanturia, V.A.; Lavrinenko, A.A.; Sorokin, A.P. COMBINED CHEMICAL-BENEFICIATION PROCESSES OF VALUABLE COMPONENTS EXTRACTION FROM COAL BURNING WASTES. In XVIII International Coal Preparation Congress: 28 June—01 July 2016 Saint-Petersburg, Russia; Litvinenko, V., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 29–34 ISBN 9783319409429.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. What Does Pi Sound Like? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 1.1) (Superseded by GAO-10-846G); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Romano, T.A. Time-frequency classification of gamma oscillatory activity in the frontoparietal system during working memory. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University: Boca Raton, FL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M. Prepared Foods With Panache. New York Times 2015, LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Sciences
AbbreviationMed. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3271

Other styles