How to format your references using the Medical Engineering and Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Engineering and Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corral GH. Stand up against the anti-technology terrorists. Nature 2011;476:373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Desai SA, Miller LH. Malaria: Protein-export pathway illuminated. Nature 2014;511:541–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Teng F-Z, Dauphas N, Helz RT. Iron isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation in Kilauea Iki lava lake. Science 2008;320:1620–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang X, Liao L, Wang S, Hu F, Wang C, Zeng Q. Polymerization or cyclic dimerization: solvent dependent homo-coupling of terminal alkynes at HOPG surface. Sci Rep 2014;4:3899.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanby M. No God, No Science? Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Bauer I, Garion S, Vdovina A, editors. Beauville Surfaces and Groups. vol. 123. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Dobkin PL, Hassed CS. How Mindfulness Has Been Integrated into Three Medical School Curriculums. In: Hassed CS, editor. Mindful Medical Practitioners: A Guide for Clinicians and Educators, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 43–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Engineering and Physics.

Blog post
Taub B. Spiders Can Hear You From Several Meters Away – Even Without Any Ears. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of the Department of Agriculture’s Role in Regulating Biotechnology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell JE. Job satisfaction and burnout among foreign -trained nurses in Saudi Arabia: A mixed-method study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Curb Postal Service’s Immunity From Lawsuits. New York Times 2006:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Engineering and Physics
AbbreviationMed. Eng. Phys.
ISSN (print)1350-4533
Biomedical Engineering

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