How to format your references using the Medical Engineering and Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Engineering and Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz L. Animal behaviour: Nested instincts. Nature 2015;521:S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobisu M, Chatani N. Chemistry. Remote control by steric effects. Science 2014;343:850–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Good MC, Zalatan JG, Lim WA. Scaffold proteins: hubs for controlling the flow of cellular information. Science 2011;332:680–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weismann A, Wenderoth M, Lounis S, Zahn P, Quaas N, Ulbrich RG, et al. Seeing the Fermi surface in real space by nanoscale electron focusing. Science 2009;323:1190–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reinhard P-G, Suraud E. Introduction to Cluster Dynamics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2008.
An edited book
Zabar S, Kachur E, Kalet A, Hanley K, editors. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: 10 Steps to Planning and Implementing OSCEs and Other Standardized Patient Exercises. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomalty R, Mallach A. Differences in Urban Form and Transportation Systems. In: Mallach A, editor. America’s Urban Future: Lessons from North of the Border, Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics; 2015, p. 71–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Engineering and Physics.

Blog post
Fang J. Polar Bears in Summer Low-Energy Modes Don’t Save That Much. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Continuing Delays Anticipated for the Advanced Automation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De La Cruz CF. A program evaluation of a literacy initiative for students with moderate to severe disabilities. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Spanish Cuisine (From Scratch). New York Times 2007:NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Engineering and Physics
AbbreviationMed. Eng. Phys.
ISSN (print)1350-4533
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles