How to format your references using the Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight J. Tomorrow’s world. Nature. 2003 Dec 11;426(6967):709–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Franchi L, Núñez G. Immunology. Orchestrating inflammasomes. Science. 2012 Sep 14;337(6100):1299–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Santra MK, Wajapeyee N, Green MR. F-box protein FBXO31 mediates cyclin D1 degradation to induce G1 arrest after DNA damage. Nature. 2009 Jun 4;459(7247):722–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS. Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science. 2008 Feb 22;319(5866):1096–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang H, Lee EK. Healthcare Analytics: From Data to Knowledge to Healthcare Improvement. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Lai IC-H. Design and Modeling of Millimeter-Wave CMOS Circuits for Wireless Transceivers: Era of Sub-100nm Technology. Fujishima M, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. XII, 184 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Roth-Bejerano N, Navarro-Ródenas A, Gutiérrez A. Types of Mycorrhizal Association. In: Kagan-Zur V, Roth-Bejerano N, Sitrit Y, Morte A, editors. Desert Truffles: Phylogeny, Physiology, Distribution and Domestication. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 69–80. (Soil Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Education.

Blog post
Andrews R. US To Lift Ban On Creating Human-Animal Hybrids For Medical Research. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Strategic Airlift: Improvements in C-5 Mission Capability Can Help Meet Airlift Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Nov. Report No.: NSIAD-96-43.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu S. Methods for generating addressable focus cues in stereoscopic displays [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Grandmasters to Face Off in Tiebreaker. New York Times. 2016 Nov 28;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Education
AbbreviationMed. Educ.
ISSN (print)0308-0110
ISSN (online)1365-2923
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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