How to format your references using the Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smith DJ. Predictability and preparedness in influenza control. Science. 2006 Apr 21;312(5772):392–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Maherali H, Klironomos JN. Influence of phylogeny on fungal community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Science. 2007 Jun 22;316(5832):1746–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Melendez I, Grice K, Schwark L. Exceptional preservation of Palaeozoic steroids in a diagenetic continuum. Sci Rep. 2013 Sep 26;3:2768.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Miller PJ, Biassoni N, Samuels A, Tyack PL. Whale songs lengthen in response to sonar. Nature. 2000 Jun 22;405(6789):903.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Baldwin D, Birkett J, Facey O, Rabey G. The Forensic Examination and Interpretation of Tool Marks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Matson JL, Andrasik F, Matson ML, editors. Assessing Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. X, 506 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zhang G, Fischer-Hübner S. Timing Attacks on PIN Input in VoIP Networks (Short Paper). In: Holz T, Bos H, editors. Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment: 8th International Conference; DIMVA 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 7-8, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 75–84. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Education.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. What You Can Do To Reduce The Risk Of Bowel Cancer Caused By E. Coli Bacteria [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/what-you-can-do-to-reduce-the-risk-of-bowel-cancer-caused-by-e-coli-bacteria/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Facilitate Future Development of Paging Systems and Implementation of Section 309(j) of the Communications Act, and Competitive Bidding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Mar. Report No.: OGC-97-31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Batistick SA. Reclaiming One’s Gold: Imagining the Inner Child Through the Art of Therapeutic Fairy Tale Writing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Chapman MM. Hundreds in Detroit Protest Over Move to Shut Off Water. New York Times. 2014 Jul 19;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Education
AbbreviationMed. Educ.
ISSN (print)0308-0110
ISSN (online)1365-2923
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Education

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