How to format your references using the Medical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chandrashekar CM. Two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian for generating quantum walk on one-, two- and three-dimensional lattices. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 3;3:2829.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fritz G, Kroneck PMH. MICROBIOLOGY. Sulfate to go. Science. 2015 Dec 18;350(6267):1476–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Drell SD, Shultz GP, Andreasen SP. Nuclear safety. A safer nuclear enterprise. Science. 2012 Jun 8;336(6086):1236.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Levy O, Appelbaum L, Leggat W, Gothlif Y, Hayward DC, Miller DJ, et al. Light-responsive cryptochromes from a simple multicellular animal, the coral Acropora millepora. Science. 2007 Oct 19;318(5849):467–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan C. The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Maher CA, Powell AB, Uptegrove EB, editors. Combinatorics and Reasoning: Representing, Justifying and Building Isomorphisms. 1st ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. XVIII, 226 p. (Mathematics Education Library; vol. 47).
A chapter in an edited book
Roby-Brami A, Goasdoué R. A historical perspective on learning: the legacy and actuality of I. M. Pavlov and N. A. Bernstein. In: Bigand E, editor. Rethinking physical and rehabilitation medicine: New technologies induce new learning strategies. Paris: Springer; 2010. p. 71–93. (Collection de L’Académie Européenne de Médecine de Réadaptation).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Education.

Blog post
Andrews R. The Word “Science” Has Disappeared From The EPA’s Mission Statement [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Major Management Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jul. Report No.: T-NSIAD-97-178.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beattie LJ. Meeting the Needs of Low Income Students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many. New York Times. 2006 Jun 4;14CN6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Education
AbbreviationMed. Educ.
ISSN (print)0308-0110
ISSN (online)1365-2923
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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