How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yan, H. 2004. Materials science. Nucleic acid nanotechnology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5704): 2048–2049.
A journal article with 2 authors
Devanna, P., and Vernes, S.C. 2014. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137. Scientific reports, 4: 3994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jedema, F.J., Filip, A.T., and van Wees, B.J. 2001. Electrical spin injection and accumulation at room temperature in an all-metal mesoscopic spin valve. Nature, 410(6826): 345–348.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peruzzo, A., Lobino, M., Matthews, J.C.F., Matsuda, N., Politi, A., Poulios, K., Zhou, X.-Q., Lahini, Y., Ismail, N., Wörhoff, K., Bromberg, Y., Silberberg, Y., Thompson, M.G., and OBrien, J.L. 2010. Quantum walks of correlated photons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5998): 1500–1503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Middleton, D. 2012. Non-Gaussian Statistical Communication Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tan, Y., Shi, Y., and Niu, B. (Editors). 2016. Advances in Swarm Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICSI 2016, Bali, Indonesia, June 25-30, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wermers, R.A., and Grebe, S.K. 2016. Parathyroid Hormone Measurement Considerations in Primary Hyperparathyroidism. In Hyperparathyroidism: A Clinical Casebook. Edited by A.E. Kearns and R.A. Wermers. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2016. Scientists Discover How To “Switch On” Immune Cells. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies’ Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shafran, R.F. 2017. Leading Organizational Change: A Phenomenological Study of the Nonlinear Strategies Used by Female Leaders in Global Companies. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2016. Nielsen, Highlighting Value of Data, Is Buying Gracenote for $560 Million. New York Times,: B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yan 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Yan 2004, Devanna and Vernes 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Devanna and Vernes 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Peruzzo et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Civil Engineering
AbbreviationCan. J. Civ. Eng.
ISSN (print)0315-1468
ISSN (online)1208-6029
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
General Environmental Science

Other styles