How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucchitta, I. 2013. Comment on “Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6129): 143.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pizzarello, S., and Weber, A.L. 2004. Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5661): 1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, J.C., Horton, J.D., and Hobbs, H.H. 2011. Human fatty liver disease: old questions and new insights. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037): 1519–1523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martinsen, F.A., Smeltzer, B.K., Nord, M., Hawkins, T., Ballato, J., and Gibson, U.J. 2014. Silicon-core glass fibres as microwire radial-junction solar cells. Scientific reports, 4: 6283.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naylor, W., Laverty, D., and Mallett, J. 2008. The Royal Marsden Hospital Handbook of Wound Management in Cancer Care. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Shaw, R., Mallick, F., and Islam, A. (Editors). 2013. Climate Change Adaptation Actions in Bangladesh. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Qu, Z., Wang, J., and Hull, R.A. 2005. Multi-Objective Cooperative Control of Dynamical Systems. In Multi-Robot Systems. From Swarms to Intelligent Automata Volume III: Proceedings from the 2005 International Workshop on Multi-Robot Systems. Edited by L.E. Parker, F.E. Schneider, and A.C. Schultz. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. Scientists Turn to YouTube to Understand Chelyabinsk Asteroid Impact. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. The Federal Software Exchange Program: A Small Step in Improving Program Sharing. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazgaeen, L. 2017. Differential RNAi Approaches to Enhance Knockdown Efficiency of Target Gene Transcripts in the Highly DDT-Resistant 91-R Strain of Drosophila melanogaster. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. 2017. Career Over, Where to Move? New York Times,: RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lucchitta 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Pizzarello and Weber 2004, Lucchitta 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pizzarello and Weber 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Martinsen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Civil Engineering
AbbreviationCan. J. Civ. Eng.
ISSN (print)0315-1468
ISSN (online)1208-6029
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
General Environmental Science

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