How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond, J. 2016. Archaeology: Sources of Chaco wood. Nature, 529(7584): 31–33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrington, J.C., and Ambros, V. 2003. Role of microRNAs in plant and animal development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5631): 336–338.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schroder, K., Zhou, R., and Tschopp, J. 2010. The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger? Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5963): 296–300.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, T., Zhao, M.-J., Wang, Y.-K., and Fei, S.-M. 2014. Non-commutativity and local indistinguishability of quantum states. Scientific reports, 4: 6336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kivy, P. 2011. Once-Told Tales. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Khendek, F., and Dssouli, R. (Editors). 2005. Testing of Communicating Systems: 17th IFIP TC6/WG 6.1 International Conference, TestCom 2005, Montreal, Canada, May 31 - June, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Karmakar, B., and Mukhopadhayay, I. 2016. An Efficient Partition-Repetition Approach in Clustering of Big Data. In Big Data Analytics: Methods and Applications. Edited by S. Pyne, B.L.S.P. Rao, and S.B. Rao. Springer India, New Delhi. pp. 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2015. Crows Can’t Get The Hang Of Teamwork. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Reserve Has Established Effective Year 2000 Management Controls for Internal Systems Conversion. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vincent, C. 2010. Viewing Dissociative Identity Disorder through a Jungian lens. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017. Pentatonix Album Tops Billboard’s Chart Again. New York Times,: C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diamond 2016).
This sentence cites two references (Carrington and Ambros 2003, Diamond 2016).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carrington and Ambros 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Civil Engineering
AbbreviationCan. J. Civ. Eng.
ISSN (print)0315-1468
ISSN (online)1208-6029
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
General Environmental Science

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