How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downie, J.A. 2007. Plant science. Infectious heresy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5829): 1296–1297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guiver, M.D., and Lee, Y.M. 2013. Materials science. Polymer rigidity improves microporous membranes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6117): 284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, S.B., Campbell, E.B., and Mackinnon, R. 2005. Voltage sensor of Kv1.2: structural basis of electromechanical coupling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5736): 903–908.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J., Wang, X., Zhao, L., Gao, X., Zhao, Y., and Zhou, R. 2014. Rotation motion of designed nano-turbine. Scientific reports, 4: 5846.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salles, M. 2015. Decision-Making and the Information System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Janjuha-Jivraj, S. 2016. Championing Women Leaders: Beyond Sponsorship. Edited ByK. Chisholm. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Charleer, S., Klerkx, J., Duval, E., De Laet, T., and Verbert, K. 2016. Creating Effective Learning Analytics Dashboards: Lessons Learnt. In Adaptive and Adaptable Learning: 11th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2016, Lyon, France, September 13-16, 2016, Proceedings. Edited by K. Verbert, M. Sharples, and T. Klobučar. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 42–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016, July 13. In Defence Of Wasps: Why Squashing Them Comes With A Sting In The Tale. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Parent and Supplemental Student Loans: Volume and Default Trends for Fiscal Years 1989 to 1991. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, W.B. 2010. High school athletics and the “whole adolescent”: A case study of three urban high schools. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey, N. 2017, July 18. Peace Is New Test for Colombian Coca Farmers. New York Times,: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Downie 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Downie 2007, Guiver and Lee 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guiver and Lee 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Civil Engineering
AbbreviationCan. J. Civ. Eng.
ISSN (print)0315-1468
ISSN (online)1208-6029
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
General Environmental Science

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