How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donnenberg, M.S. 2000. Pathogenic strategies of enteric bacteria. Nature, 406(6797): 768–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quental, T.B., and Marshall, C.R. 2013. How the Red Queen drives terrestrial mammals to extinction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6143): 290–292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsiavaliaris, G., Fujita-Becker, S., and Manstein, D.J. 2004. Molecular engineering of a backwards-moving myosin motor. Nature, 427(6974): 558–561.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moellering, R.E., Cornejo, M., Davis, T.N., Del Bianco, C., Aster, J.C., Blacklow, S.C., Kung, A.L., Gilliland, D.G., Verdine, G.L., and Bradner, J.E. 2009. Direct inhibition of the NOTCH transcription factor complex. Nature, 462(7270): 182–188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell, D.L., and Arlow, P.C. 2015. Industrial Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dang, T.K., Wagner, R., Neuhold, E., Takizawa, M., Küng, J., and Thoai, N. (Editors). 2014. Future Data and Security Engineering: First International Conference, FDSE 2014, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 19-21, 2014, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sainz, M.A., Armengol, J., Calm, R., Herrero, P., Jorba, L., and Vehi, J. 2014. Interpretability and Optimality. In Modal Interval Analysis: New Tools for Numerical Information. Edited by J. Armengol, R. Calm, P. Herrero, L. Jorba, and J. Vehi. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 73–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014. The Moon Might Still Have Partly Molten Insides. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. International Space Station: Approaches for Ensuring Utilization through 2020 Are Reasonable but Should Be Revisited as NASA Gains More Knowledge of On-Orbit Performance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang, V. 2009. Software maintenance: A program slicer using cross referencer. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS. 2009. Stephen King Plans a Vampire Comic. New York Times,: C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donnenberg 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Donnenberg 2000, Quental and Marshall 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quental and Marshall 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Moellering et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Civil Engineering
AbbreviationCan. J. Civ. Eng.
ISSN (print)0315-1468
ISSN (online)1208-6029
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
General Environmental Science

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