How to format your references using the Mechanism and Machine Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanism and Machine Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.H. Zewail, Four-dimensional electron microscopy, Science. 328 (2010) 187–193.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.T. Fasullo, K.E. Trenberth, A less cloudy future: the role of subtropical subsidence in climate sensitivity, Science. 338 (2012) 792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Manabe, P.M. Barrett, S. Isaji, Palaeontology. A refugium for relics?, Nature. 404 (2000) 953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.C. Murdock, S. Blanford, G.L. Hughes, J.L. Rasgon, M.B. Thomas, Temperature alters Plasmodium blocking by Wolbachia, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.W. Vincoli, Basic Guide to System Safety, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
J. Foster, A Short Course in General Relativity, Third Edition, Springer, New York, NY, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Massé, P.D. Pawelek, Iron as Nutrient: Strategies for Iron Acquisition and Usage by Pathogenic Microorganisms, in: S. Yehuda, D.I. Mostofsky (Eds.), Iron Deficiency and Overload: From Basic Biology to Clinical Medicine, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2010: pp. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanism and Machine Theory.

Blog post
J. Fang, New Solar Efficiency World Record Set, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Acquisitions: Use of “Other Transaction” Agreements Limited and Mostly for Research and Development Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Yang, A comparison of unsupervised learning techniques for detection of medical abuse in automobile claims, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Oestreich, Juilliard’s Fast Takes on French Baroque, New York Times. (2016) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanism and Machine Theory
AbbreviationMech. Mach. Theory
ISSN (print)0094-114X
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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