How to format your references using the Mechanism and Machine Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanism and Machine Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Ceci, Take concepts of chemistry out of the classroom, Nature. 522 (2015) 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.A. Mathews, H. Tan, Economics: Manufacture renewables to build energy security, Nature. 513 (2014) 166–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Rabinovich, R. Huerta, G. Laurent, Neuroscience. Transient dynamics for neural processing, Science. 321 (2008) 48–50.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.O. Sharpee, H. Sugihara, A.V. Kurgansky, S.P. Rebrik, M.P. Stryker, K.D. Miller, Adaptive filtering enhances information transmission in visual cortex, Nature. 439 (2006) 936–942.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.A. Klugman, H.H. Panjer, G.E. Willmot, Loss Models: Further Topics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
R. Visker, The Inhuman Condition: Looking for Difference after Levinas and Heidegger, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Garcke, M. Griebel, M. Thess, Data Mining for the Category Management in the Retail Market, in: M. Grötschel, K. Lucas, V. Mehrmann (Eds.), Production Factor Mathematics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 81–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanism and Machine Theory.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Does A Mum’s Diet During Pregnancy Influence Her Baby’s Food Preferences?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Infrastructure: Federal Highway Administration FY 1992 Budget Request and Highway Program Reauthorization Proposal, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Okada, Modulation of BACE1 by a novel sorting nexin in Alzheimer’s disease, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J. de la MERCED, Rothschild Sets Sights On U.S. Tech Investments, New York Times. (2017) B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanism and Machine Theory
AbbreviationMech. Mach. Theory
ISSN (print)0094-114X
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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