How to format your references using the Mechanism and Machine Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mechanism and Machine Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Vedral, Quantifying entanglement in macroscopic systems, Nature. 453 (2008) 1004–1007.
A journal article with 2 authors
O.M. Bannard, J.G. Cyster, Immunology. When less signaling is more, Science. 336 (2012) 1120–1121.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Bahmani, D. Bacon, B. Anvari, Erythrocyte-derived photo-theranostic agents: hybrid nano-vesicles containing indocyanine green for near infrared imaging and therapeutic applications, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2180.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.-P. Lu, Y.-C. Lai, S.-W. Huang, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Hsieh, H.-T. Yu, Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.I. Alexandrovna, B.I. Ionin, J.C. Tebby, Alkynes in Cycloadditions, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
P. Spagnoletti, ed., Organizational Change and Information Systems: Working and Living Together in New Ways, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Cortiana, Le informazioni e l’equilibrio dinamico dell’ecosistema, in: E. Laszlo, P.M. Biava (Eds.), Il Senso Ritrovato, Springer, Milano, 2013: pp. 63–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mechanism and Machine Theory.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Galactic Umbrella’s Tale Revealed, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Finance: Implementation of General Aviation Entitlement Grants, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Burg, Faculty perspectives on doctoral student mentoring: The mentor’s odyssey, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Branch, Finding a Home in the Sand, New York Times. (2016) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMechanism and Machine Theory
AbbreviationMech. Mach. Theory
ISSN (print)0094-114X
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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