How to format your references using the Clinical Oral Investigations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Oral Investigations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Romanowicz B (2009) Geophysics. The thickness of tectonic plates. Science 324:474–476
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Bland-Hawthorn J, Peebles PJE (2006) Astronomy. Near-field cosmology. Science 313:311–312
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Brantley JN, Wiggins KM, Bielawski CW (2011) Unclicking the click: mechanically facilitated 1,3-dipolar cycloreversions. Science 333:1606–1609
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Clément G, Ahlberg PE, Blieck A, et al (2004) Palaeogeography: Devonian tetrapod from western Europe. Nature 427:412–413

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Meyr H, Moeneclaey M, Fechtel SA (2001) Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA
An edited book
1.
Gram C, Rasmussen P, Østergaard SD (2015) History of Nordic Computing 4: 4th IFIP WG 9.7 Conference, HiNC 4, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 13-15, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dalla Pria P (2005) I materiali. In: Pace N (ed) La protesi di ginocchio di primo impianto. Springer, Milano, pp 45–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Oral Investigations.

Blog post
1.
Davis J (2016) Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Created A “Dirty Blizzard” That Lasted Months. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-created-dirty-blizzard-lasted-months/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2005) Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
De La Cruz E (2014) School social work programing for an elementary school: A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Murphy MJO (2010) For Giddyup, Give a Horse a Holiday. New York Times WK2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Oral Investigations
AbbreviationClin. Oral Investig.
ISSN (print)1432-6981
ISSN (online)1436-3771
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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