How to format your references using the Clinical Oral Investigations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Oral Investigations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keller U (2003) Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers. Nature 424:831–838
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson AJ, Zon LI (2003) Biomedicine. Love, honor, and protect (your liver). Science 299:835–837
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffin DM, Hoffman DS, Strick PL (2015) Corticomotoneuronal cells are “functionally tuned.” Science 350:667–670
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gourine AV, Llaudet E, Dale N, Spyer KM (2005) ATP is a mediator of chemosensory transduction in the central nervous system. Nature 436:108–111

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waye JD, Aisenberg J, Rubin PH (2013) Practical Colonoscopy. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK
An edited book
Tanaka M (2012) Computational Biomechanics: Theoretical Background and Biological/Biomedical Problems. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Morales JO, Watts AB, McConville JT (2016) Mechanical Particle-Size Reduction Techniques. In: Williams RO III, Watts AB, Miller DA (eds) Formulating Poorly Water Soluble Drugs. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 165–213

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Oral Investigations.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) A Robot You Can Wear Could Help Carry Heavy Loads. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Railroad Safety: Engineer Work Shift Length and Schedule Variability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hasan SN (2012) Design and optimization of 2012 Formula SAE chassis with finite element analysis for CSULB. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM (2013) Saving Summer in a Jar. New York Times LI10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Oral Investigations
AbbreviationClin. Oral Investig.
ISSN (print)1432-6981
ISSN (online)1436-3771
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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