How to format your references using the Clinical Oral Investigations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Oral Investigations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blumenthal MS (2013) National Academy of Sciences: Move with the times. Nature 494:423–424
A journal article with 2 authors
Giles J, Knight J (2003) Dolly’s death leaves researchers woolly on clone ageing issue. Nature 421:776
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang X-L, Liu L-F, Liu W-M (2013) Quantum anomalous Hall effect and tunable topological states in 3d transition metals doped silicene. Sci Rep 3:2908
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tumlinson J, Thom C, Werk JK, et al (2011) The large, oxygen-rich halos of star-forming galaxies are a major reservoir of galactic metals. Science 334:948–952

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tyson H (2010) Microsoft® Word 2010 Bible. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Klazar M, Kratochvíl J, Loebl M, et al (2006) Topics in Discrete Mathematics: Dedicated to Jarik Nešetřil on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hanson RK, Spearrin RM, Goldenstein CS (2016) Effects of Nuclear Spin: Rotational Partition Function and Degeneracies. In: Spearrin RM, Goldenstein CS (eds) Spectroscopy and Optical Diagnostics for Gases. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Oral Investigations.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Why It Is Useful To Understand The Role Of Genetics In Behaviour. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Direct Student Loans: Additional Steps Would Increase Borrowers’ Awareness of Electronic Debiting and Reduce Federal Administrative Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnett J (2017) Understanding gender differences in teachers’ level of insight as it relates to ADHD. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) The Skyjacker’s Tale. New York Times C8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Oral Investigations
AbbreviationClin. Oral Investig.
ISSN (print)1432-6981
ISSN (online)1436-3771
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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