How to format your references using the Clinical Oral Investigations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Oral Investigations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Trainor P (2003) Development. The bills of qucks and duails. Science 299:523–524
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Blackstock JJ, Long JCS (2010) Climate change. The politics of geoengineering. Science 327:527
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Beerling DJ, Osborne CP, Chaloner WG (2001) Evolution of leaf-form in land plants linked to atmospheric CO2 decline in the Late Palaeozoic era. Nature 410:352–354
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Zappacosta DC, Ochogavía AC, Rodrigo JM, et al (2014) Increased apomixis expression concurrent with genetic and epigenetic variation in a newly synthesized Eragrostis curvula polyploid. Sci Rep 4:4423

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Klepinger LL (2006) Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Fouché G (2008) Accelerated VB 2008. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Muijs D, Ainscow M, Chapman C, West M (2011) Societal Theories of Networking and Collaboration. In: Ainscow M, Chapman C, West M (eds) Collaboration and Networking in Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 29–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Oral Investigations.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2014) Scientists Develop Lithium-Ion Battery That Can Be Stretched By 600%. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/scientists-develop-lithium-ion-battery-can-be-stretched-600/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1979) Supplemental Security Income Computerized System Development Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Arntson JD (2015) Heidegger and disclosive rhetoric: Two divergent paths in immanence and transcendence. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kishkovsky S (2003) A New Glasnost On War’s Looted Art. New York Times E1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Oral Investigations
AbbreviationClin. Oral Investig.
ISSN (print)1432-6981
ISSN (online)1436-3771
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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