How to format your references using the IT Professional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IT Professional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. T. Heikkilä, “Physics. Cold-atom thermoelectrics,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6159, pp. 703–704, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. M. Brucker and S. R. Bordenstein, “Response to Comment on ‘The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia,’” Science, vol. 345, no. 6200, p. 1011, Aug. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Kinnunen, M. Rodríguez, and P. Törmä, “Pairing gap and in-gap excitations in trapped fermionic superfluids,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5687, pp. 1131–1133, Aug. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. G. Jackson et al., “The return of subducted continental crust in Samoan lavas,” Nature, vol. 448, no. 7154, pp. 684–687, Aug. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Stoican and S. Olaru, Set-theoretic Fault-tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
N. Confalonieri and S. Romagnoli, Eds., Small Implants in Knee Reconstruction. Milano: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Li, Y. Zu, and Y. Jia, “Sub-channel and Power Allocation for Multiuser OFDM Systems with Proportional Rate Constraints Based on Genetic Algorithms,” in Frontiers in Internet Technologies: Second CCF Internet Conference of China, ICoC 2013, Zhangjiajie, China, July 10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, J. Su, B. Zhao, Z. Sun, X. Wang, F. Wang, and K. Xu, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IT Professional.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Republicans Withdraw Plan To Sell Off 3.3 Million Acres Of Public Land After Intense Opposition,” IFLScience, Feb. 03, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “[Comments on Agency Participation in SBIR Program],” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-230594.2, Mar. 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. C. Fleming, “The Academic Identity Experience of Liberal Arts Faculty in the Age of New Managerialism,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. K. (nyt), “World Briefing | Europe: Lithuania: Presidential Runoff,” New York Times, p. A6, Dec. 24, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIT Professional
AbbreviationIT Prof.
ISSN (print)1520-9202
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles