How to format your references using the IT Professional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IT Professional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Merrow, “Journal club. A chronobiologist makes sense of circadian dysfunction in illness,” Nature, vol. 467, no. 7312, p. 135, Sep. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. G. Knobel and A. N. Cleland, “Nanometre-scale displacement sensing using a single electron transistor,” Nature, vol. 424, no. 6946, pp. 291–293, Jul. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. del Campo, M. G. Boshier, and A. Saxena, “Bent waveguides for matter-waves: supersymmetric potentials and reflectionless geometries,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5274, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. P. Baldwin, D. W. J. Thompson, E. F. Shuckburgh, W. A. Norton, and N. P. Gillett, “Atmospheric science. Weather from the stratosphere?,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5631, pp. 317–319, Jul. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Svensson, Cable-Stayed Bridges. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
T. Daradoumis, S. Caballé, J. M. Marquès, and F. Xhafa, Eds., Intelligent Collaborative e-Learning Systems and Applications, vol. 246. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Ispány, “Some Asymptotic Results for Strongly Critical Branching Processes with Immigration in Varying Environment,” in Branching Processes and Their Applications, I. M. del Puerto, M. González, C. Gutiérrez, R. Martínez, C. Minuesa, M. Molina, M. Mota, and A. Ramos, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IT Professional.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Atmospheric Winds Could Help Us Study The Magnetic Field Of Exoplanets,” IFLScience, May 16, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology: Social Security Administration’s Data Exchanges Support Current Programs, but Better Planning Is Needed to Meet Future Demands,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-09-966, Sep. 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Acosta, “Building bridges: A specialized training program for professionals in school settings to address bullying in LGBTQ youth: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P. Hofmann and J. Leland, “Urban Pastoral,” New York Times, p. MB7, Aug. 11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIT Professional
AbbreviationIT Prof.
ISSN (print)1520-9202
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture

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