How to format your references using the Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. Telomeres: All’s Well That Ends Well. Nature 2011, 478, S13-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roweis, S.T.; Saul, L.K. Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction by Locally Linear Embedding. Science 2000, 290, 2323–2326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hudson, J.J.; Taylor, W.D.; Schindler, D.W. Phosphate Concentrations in Lakes. Nature 2000, 406, 54–56.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rosenberg, N.A.; Pritchard, J.K.; Weber, J.L.; Cann, H.M.; Kidd, K.K.; Zhivotovsky, L.A.; Feldman, M.W. Genetic Structure of Human Populations. Science 2002, 298, 2381–2385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reid, R.; Fraser-King, G.; Schwaderer, W.D. Data Lifecycles; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470028728.
An edited book
Tian, X. Entropy Coders of the H.264/AVC Standard: Algorithms and VLSI Architectures; Le, T.M., Lian, Y., Eds.; Signals and Communication Technology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642147029.
A chapter in an edited book
Okawara, W.; Morita, T.; Yamaguchi, T. Implementing Mobility Service Based on Japanese Linked Data. In Semantic Technology: Third Joint International Conference, JIST 2013, Seoul, South Korea, November 28--30, 2013, Revised Selected Papers; Kim, W., Ding, Y., Kim, H.-G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 51–66 ISBN 9783319068251.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Brains, Genes And Chemical Imbalances – How Explanations Of Mental Illness Affect Stigma (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Meeting the Government’s Technology Challenge: Results of a GAO Symposium; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seefried, V.I. Timely and Accurate Decision-Making during U.S. Public Health Emergencies: Incremental Dynamic Decision-Making (IDD) for Public Health Emergency Response. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. The Neediest Cases; Chasing Her Dream Through Education. New York Times 1995, 126.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematics
ISSN (online)2227-7390

Other styles