How to format your references using the Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Starting the Brain Gain. Nature 2004, 427, 267.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richards, T.A.; Gomes, S.L. Protistology: How to Build a Microbial Eye. Nature 2015, 523, 166–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pack, A.; Shelley, J.M.G.; Palme, H. Chondrules with Peculiar REE Patterns: Implications for Solar Nebular Condensation at High C/O. Science 2004, 303, 997–1000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Khaitovich, P.; Hellmann, I.; Enard, W.; Nowick, K.; Leinweber, M.; Franz, H.; Weiss, G.; Lachmann, M.; Pääbo, S. Parallel Patterns of Evolution in the Genomes and Transcriptomes of Humans and Chimpanzees. Science 2005, 309, 1850–1854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grigg, N.S. Infrastructure Finance; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118266182.
An edited book
Refuge and Resilience: Promoting Resilience and Mental Health among Resettled Refugees and Forced Migrants; Simich, L., Andermann, L., Eds.; International Perspectives on Migration; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; Vol. 7; ISBN 9789400779228.
A chapter in an edited book
Piirainen, K.A.; Briggs, R.O. Design Theory in Practice – Making Design Science Research More Transparent. In Service-Oriented Perspectives in Design Science Research: 6th International Conference, DESRIST 2011, Milwaukee, WI, USA, May 5-6, 2011. Proceedings; Jain, H., Sinha, A.P., Vitharana, P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 47–61 ISBN 9783642206320.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematics.

Blog post
Taub, B. Scientists Have Found The Source Of Emotional Resilience In The Brain Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA: Implementing a Knowledge-Based Acquisition Framework Could Lead to Better Investment Decisions and Project Outcomes; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bartenhagen, J. Transitioning Organizations for Sustainability: Exploring the Intersection of Sustainability, Worldview, and Organization Development. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, G.; Kanter, J. Pence Assures Europe of American Support. New York Times 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematics
ISSN (online)2227-7390

Other styles