How to format your references using the Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mazur, E. Education. Farewell, Lecture? Science 2009, 323, 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tester, M.; Langridge, P. Breeding Technologies to Increase Crop Production in a Changing World. Science 2010, 327, 818–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schall, J.D.; Paré, M.; Woodman, G.F. Comment on “Top-down versus Bottom-up Control of Attention in the Prefrontal and Posterior Parietal Cortices.” Science 2007, 318, 44; author reply 44.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qi, Z.; Pei, G.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W. Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Gene-Expression Heterogeneity in Syntrophic Dual-Culture of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris with Methanosarcina Barkeri. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perlmutter, D.D.; Rothstein, R.L. The Challenge of Climate Change; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444328523.
An edited book
Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: First International Workshop, CVBIA 2005, Beijing, China, October 21, 2005. Proceedings; Liu, Y., Jiang, T., Zhang, C., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 3765; ISBN 9783540294115.
A chapter in an edited book
Moisan, M.; Pelletier, J. Introduction to the Physics of HF Discharges. In Physics of Collisional Plasmas: Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges; Pelletier, J., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 337–385 ISBN 9789400745575.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Giant Stars Form The Same Way As Their Smaller Relatives Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Management: Leadership Needed in Managing Federal Telecommunications; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wasserman, M.M. Psychological Symptoms, Family Functioning, and Religious Coping in Second- and Third-Generation Holocaust Survivors. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wogan, J. Eat, Pray, Chill. New York Times 2016, M2124.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematics
ISSN (online)2227-7390

Other styles