How to format your references using the Mathematics and Financial Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematics and Financial Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee, J.D.: Engineering. Can technology get your eyes back on the road? Science. 324, 344–346 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkovits, B.D., Mayr, C.: Alternative 3’ UTRs act as scaffolds to regulate membrane protein localization. Nature. 522, 363–367 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Knapp, S., Polaszek, A., Watson, M.: Spreading the word. Nature. 446, 261–262 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Otsu, T., Ando, T., Takiguchi, Y., Ohtake, Y., Toyoda, H., Itoh, H.: Direct evidence for three-dimensional off-axis trapping with single Laguerre-Gaussian beam. Sci. Rep. 4, 4579 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merritt, C.: Process Steam Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Rychtář, J., Gupta, S., Shivaji, R., Chhetri, M. eds: Topics from the 8th Annual UNCG Regional Mathematics and Statistics Conference. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Levin, B.W., Nosov, M.A.: The Physics of Tsunami Formation by Sources of Nonseismic Origin. In: Nosov, M. (ed.) Physics of Tsunamis. pp. 263–309. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematics and Financial Economics.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Can You Figure Out This Toothpick Brain Teaser?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transition From School to Work: H.R. 2884 Addresses Components of Comprehensive Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batson, G.: Head Start and at -risk students: Perceptions of administrators, practitioners, and parents, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J.: Another Sign of Trouble in Google’s Self-Driving Car Unit: Its Top Roboticist Is Leaving, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematics and Financial Economics
AbbreviationMath. Financ. Econ.
ISSN (print)1862-9679
ISSN (online)1862-9660
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

Other styles