How to format your references using the The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, Jonathan. “Turning Technology into Gold.” Nature 426, no. 6967 (December 11, 2003): 708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoo, B. C., and G. Lubec. “P25 Protein in Neurodegeneration.” Nature 411, no. 6839 (June 14, 2001): 763–64; discussion 764-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kartal, B., J. G. Kuenen, and M. C. M. van Loosdrecht. “Engineering. Sewage Treatment with Anammox.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328, no. 5979 (May 7, 2010): 702–3.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nemchin, Alexander A., Martin J. Whitehouse, Martina Menneken, Thorsten Geisler, Robert T. Pidgeon, and Simon A. Wilde. “A Light Carbon Reservoir Recorded in Zircon-Hosted Diamond from the Jack Hills.” Nature 454, no. 7200 (July 3, 2008): 92–95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye, Tony. Building the Reflective Healthcare Organisation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Plangger, Kirk, ed. Thriving in a New World Economy: Proceedings of the 2012 World Marketing Congress/Cultural Perspectives in Marketing Conference. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bednar, Peter, and Moufida Sadok. “Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice: Socio-Technical Toolbox.” In Empowering Organizations: Enabling Platforms and Artefacts, edited by Teresina Torre, Alessio Maria Braccini, and Riccardo Spinelli, 51–62. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. “New Analysis Reveals Neanderthal Drug Use.” IFLScience. IFLScience, March 8, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Highway Infrastructure: Preliminary Information on the Timely Completion of Highway Construction Projects.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 19, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nadeau, Elizabeth M. “Baby Boomer Generation’s Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. “Hot Stove Warms Up: Cespedes Opts Out of Deal.” New York Times, November 5, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
AbbreviationJ. Imp. Commonw. Hist.
ISSN (print)0308-6534
ISSN (online)1743-9329
Political Science and International Relations

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