How to format your references using the The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trefethen, Lloyd N. “Obituary: Gene H. Golub (1932-2007).” Nature 450, no. 7172 (December 13, 2007): 962.
A journal article with 2 authors
Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S. G., and Jeffrey R. Holt. “Sound Strategies for Hearing Restoration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344, no. 6184 (May 9, 2014): 1241062.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abelson, M., G. Baer, and A. Agnon. “Evidence from Gabbro of the Troodos Ophiolite for Lateral Magma Transport along a Slow-Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridge.” Nature 409, no. 6816 (January 4, 2001): 72–75.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Beaugrand, Grégory, Keith M. Brander, J. Alistair Lindley, Sami Souissi, and Philip C. Reid. “Plankton Effect on Cod Recruitment in the North Sea.” Nature 426, no. 6967 (December 11, 2003): 661–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gage, Laurie J. Hand-Rearing Wild and Domestic Mammals. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
Klockars, Carl B. Enhancing Police Integrity. Edited by Sanja Kutnjak Ivković and M. R. Haberfeld. New York, NY: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang, Yu, Zili Dai, and Weijie Zhang. “SPH Modeling for Flow Slides in Landfills.” In Geo-Disaster Modeling and Analysis: An SPH-Based Approach, edited by Zili Dai and Weijie Zhang, 115–32. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. “Climate Change Could Wipe Out 60 Percent Of Adélie Penguins This Century, Study Finds.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 29, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Small Business Innovation Research: Information on Awards Made by NIH and DoD in Fiscal Years 2001 through 2004.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 14, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowley, Catherine Jane. “A Critical Analysis of the CELF-4: The Responsible Clinician’s Guide to the CELF-4.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McAULEY, James. “The Artists and Their Alley.” New York Times, September 22, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
AbbreviationJ. Imp. Commonw. Hist.
ISSN (print)0308-6534
ISSN (online)1743-9329
Political Science and International Relations

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