How to format your references using the The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, Monya. “Genomics: The Search for Association.” Nature 467, no. 7319 (October 28, 2010): 1135–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farley, K. A., and S. Mukhopadhyay. “An Extraterrestrial Impact at the Permian-Triassic Boundary?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293, no. 5539 (September 28, 2001): 2343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mutanen, Marko, Lauri Kaila, and Jukka Tabell. “Wide-Ranging Barcoding Aids Discovery of One-Third Increase of Species Richness in Presumably Well-Investigated Moths.” Scientific Reports 3 (October 9, 2013): 2901.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Poccia, Nicola, Gaetano Campi, Alessandro Ricci, Alessandra S. Caporale, Emanuela Di Cola, Thomas A. Hawkins, and Antonio Bianconi. “Changes of Statistical Structural Fluctuations Unveils an Early Compacted Degraded Stage of PNS Myelin.” Scientific Reports 4 (June 25, 2014): 5430.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, Clifford. Engineers’ Data Book. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
Kılıçman, Adem, Hari M. Srivastava, M. Mursaleen, and Zanariah Abdul Majid, eds. Recent Advances in Mathematical Sciences: Selected Papers from ICREM7 2015. Singapore: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Popovskij, Vladimir, Alexander Barkalov, and Larysa Titarenko. “Mathematical Models and Principles of Control in TCS.” In Control and Adaptation in Telecommunication Systems: Mathematical Foundations, edited by Alexander Barkalov and Larysa Titarenko, 37–53. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. “Healthcare Funding Cuts Most Likely Cause Of High Mortality Rates In UK, Study Suggests.” IFLScience. IFLScience, February 20, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Airports’ Efforts to Deal with Date Change Problem.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 29, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Messian, Navid Moshe. “The Spiral of Time: A Path to the Soul—Jewish Mystical and Depth Psychological Perspectives.” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, Michael. “Trump the Transparent.” New York Times, June 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
AbbreviationJ. Imp. Commonw. Hist.
ISSN (print)0308-6534
ISSN (online)1743-9329
Political Science and International Relations

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