How to format your references using the The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leovy, C. “Weather and Climate on Mars.” Nature 412, no. 6843 (July 12, 2001): 245–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickens, Marvin, and Tania N. Gonzalez. “Molecular Biology. Knives, Accomplices, and RNA.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306, no. 5700 (November 19, 2004): 1299–1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karan, Santanu, Zhiwei Jiang, and Andrew G. Livingston. “MEMBRANE FILTRATION. Sub-10 Nm Polyamide Nanofilms with Ultrafast Solvent Transport for Molecular Separation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348, no. 6241 (June 19, 2015): 1347–51.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hu, L., P. Mateo, M. Ye, X. Zhang, J. D. Berset, V. Handrick, D. Radisch, et al. “Plant Iron Acquisition Strategy Exploited by an Insect Herbivore.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 361, no. 6403 (August 17, 2018): 694–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Linacre, Adrian M. T., and Shanan S. Tobe. Wildlife DNA Analysis. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
O’Connor, Rory V., Terry Rout, Fergal McCaffery, and Alec Dorling, eds. Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 11th International Conference, SPICE 2011, Dublin, Ireland, May 30 – June 1, 2011. Proceedings. Vol. 155. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakrabarti, Gagari, and Chitrakalpa Sen. “Global Stock Market, Knife-Edge Stability and the Crisis.” In Anatomy of Global Stock Market Crashes: An Empirical Analysis, edited by Chitrakalpa Sen, 49–62. New Delhi: Springer India, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. “SpaceX Unveils New Dragon Capsule That Could Carry Astronauts To The ISS.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 30, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Safe Routes to School: Progress in Implementing the Program, but a Comprehensive Plan to Evaluate Program Outcomes Is Needed.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 31, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, Jennifer Elaine. “Menasha Litigation: Wake-Up Call or Just A False Alarm.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, Ben. “Steelers Prevail With Six Field Goals and One Relentless Running Back.” New York Times, January 16, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
AbbreviationJ. Imp. Commonw. Hist.
ISSN (print)0308-6534
ISSN (online)1743-9329
Political Science and International Relations

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