How to format your references using the The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radick, Gregory. “HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Beyond the ‘Mendel-Fisher Controversy.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350, no. 6257 (October 9, 2015): 159–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roe, Gerard H., and Marcia B. Baker. “Why Is Climate Sensitivity so Unpredictable?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, no. 5850 (October 26, 2007): 629–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jansens, Annemieke, Esther van Duijn, and Ineke Braakman. “Coordinated Nonvectorial Folding in a Newly Synthesized Multidomain Protein.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298, no. 5602 (December 20, 2002): 2401–3.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hirschey, Matthew D., Tadahiro Shimazu, Eric Goetzman, Enxuan Jing, Bjoern Schwer, David B. Lombard, Carrie A. Grueter, et al. “SIRT3 Regulates Mitochondrial Fatty-Acid Oxidation by Reversible Enzyme Deacetylation.” Nature 464, no. 7285 (March 4, 2010): 121–25.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barbosa, Pedro, Deborah L. Berry, and Christina S. Kary. Insect Histology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Villatoro, Daniel, Jordi Sabater-Mir, and Jaime Simão Sichman, eds. Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XII: International Workshop, MABS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2-6, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7124. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Weresa, Marzenna Anna. “Policies Supporting Regional Innovation in Poland in 2014–2020: The European and National Perspective.” In New Cohesion Policy of the European Union in Poland: How It Will Influence the Investment Attractiveness of Regions in 2014-2020, edited by Adam A. Ambroziak, 77–89. Contributions to Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Beyond Dinosaurs, What Would We Need To Create A Jurassic World?” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 15, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Information Security: State Has Taken Steps to Implement a Continuous Monitoring Application, but Key Challenges Remain.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 8, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Merritt, Kevin M. “Predicting the Success of Running Back Prospects in the National Football League.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. “IN GAZA, PEACE MEETS PATHOLOGY.” New York Times, November 27, 1994.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
AbbreviationJ. Imp. Commonw. Hist.
ISSN (print)0308-6534
ISSN (online)1743-9329
Political Science and International Relations

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