How to format your references using the The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rutishauser, Urs. “Gerald Edelman (1929-2014).” Nature 510, no. 7506 (June 26, 2014): 474.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackinnon, M. J., and K. Marsh. “The Selection Landscape of Malaria Parasites.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328, no. 5980 (May 14, 2010): 866–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira, Rui F., Luis A. Carneiro, and Adelino V. M. Canário. “Behavioural Endocrinology: No Hormonal Response in Tied Fights.” Nature 437, no. 7056 (September 8, 2005): 207–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ghez, A. M., M. Morris, E. E. Becklin, A. Tanner, and T. Kremenek. “The Accelerations of Stars Orbiting the Milky Way’s Central Black Hole.” Nature 407, no. 6802 (September 21, 2000): 349–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sattler, Klaus. Thermische Trennverfahren. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
Singh, Arun D., A. Linn Murphree, and Bertil E. Damato, eds. Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology: Retinoblastoma. 2nd ed. 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Tan, Cher Ming, and Feifei He. “Concluding Remarks.” In Electromigration Modeling at Circuit Layout Level, edited by Feifei He, 101–3. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Singapore: Springer, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. “California Breaks Record After Getting 81 Percent Of Energy From Renewables.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 25, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Transportation Security: Status of GAO Recommendations on TSA’s Security-Related Technology Acquisitions.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 17, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haradon, Catherine Marie. “The Ecological Context of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age Transition in Africa.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rutenberg, Jim. “How Do You Solve a Problem Like Ben Carson?” New York Times, March 17, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
AbbreviationJ. Imp. Commonw. Hist.
ISSN (print)0308-6534
ISSN (online)1743-9329
Political Science and International Relations

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