How to format your references using the Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jain, R.K. Normalization of Tumor Vasculature: An Emerging Concept in Antiangiogenic Therapy. Science 2005, 307, 58–62.
A journal article with 2 authors
Molino, J.F.; Sabatier, D. Tree Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests: A Validation of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. Science 2001, 294, 1702–1704.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abundo, C.; Monterola, C.; Legara, E.F. Criticality of Forcing Directions on the Fragmentation and Resilience of Grid Networks. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6195.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Akala, O.O.; Park, I.-K.; Qian, D.; Pihalja, M.; Becker, M.W.; Clarke, M.F. Long-Term Haematopoietic Reconstitution by Trp53-/-P16Ink4a-/-P19Arf-/- Multipotent Progenitors. Nature 2008, 453, 228–232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane, C. Magnolia; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444395273.
An edited book
Encyclopedia of Parasitology; Mehlhorn, H., Ed.; Third Edition.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; ISBN 9783540489948.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaksonen, M. Actin in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis. In Actin-based Motility: Cellular, Molecular and Physical Aspects; Carlier, M.-F., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp. 85–101 ISBN 9789048193004.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Is Middle America Due For A Catastrophic Earthquake? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Operations of and Outlook for the Transportation Trust Funds; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Linsenmeyer, J.P. A Nice Place to Live and Work: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of a Residential Life Living-Learning Community and Employment Model at a Top-Tier Midwestern University. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Solitary Refinement: A Runner’s Quest. New York Times 2012, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials
AbbreviationMaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)1996-1944
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

Other styles