How to format your references using the Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaumseil, J. Applied physics. Electronic control of circularly polarized light emission. Science 2014, 344, 702–703.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pollard, P.J.; Ratcliffe, P.J. Cancer. Puzzling patterns of predisposition. Science 2009, 324, 192–194.
A journal article with 3 authors
de Roode, J.C.; Lefèvre, T.; Hunter, M.D. Ecology. Self-medication in animals. Science 2013, 340, 150–151.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blancou, P.; Vartanian, J.P.; Christopherson, C.; Chenciner, N.; Basilico, C.; Kwok, S.; Wain-Hobson, S. Polio vaccine samples not linked to AIDS. Nature 2001, 410, 1045–1046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molimard, J. Experimental Mechanics of Solids and Structures; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119292302.
An edited book
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 212; Whitacre, D.M., Ed.; Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Continuation of Residue Reviews; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; Vol. 212; ISBN 9781441984524.
A chapter in an edited book
Quintero, O.A.; Moore, J.E.; Yengo, C.M. Basics of the Cytoskeleton: Myosins. In Cytoskeleton and Human Disease; Kavallaris, M., Ed.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2012; pp. 73–100 ISBN 9781617797873.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Potential Obesity-Contributing Gene Identified (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce to Achieve Results; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sonn, A.C. Institutions’ needs and donors’ dreams: A case study of successful student affairs fundraising collaboration at three private research universities. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman, J.L. Damien Chazelle on Los Angeles and Its Charms. New York Times 2017, TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials
AbbreviationMaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)1996-1944
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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