How to format your references using the Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pizzorusso, T. Neuroscience. Erasing Fear Memories. Science 2009, 325, 1214–1215.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rauschenberger, R.; Yantis, S. Masking Unveils Pre-Amodal Completion Representation in Visual Search. Nature 2001, 410, 369–372.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flak, M.B.; Neves, J.F.; Blumberg, R.S. Immunology. Welcome to the Microgenderome. Science 2013, 339, 1044–1045.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blewett, D.T.; Chabot, N.L.; Denevi, B.W.; Ernst, C.M.; Head, J.W.; Izenberg, N.R.; Murchie, S.L.; Solomon, S.C.; Nittler, L.R.; McCoy, T.J.; et al. Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER Evidence for Geologically Recent Volatile-Related Activity. Science 2011, 333, 1856–1859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naylor, W.; Laverty, D.; Mallett, J. The Royal Marsden Hospital Handbook of Wound Management in Cancer Care; Blackwell Science Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470694992.
An edited book
Harwood, T.M. Self-Help in Mental Health: A Critical Review; L’Abate, L., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; ISBN 9781441910981.
A chapter in an edited book
McCormack, W.; Chatterjee, D. Technology, Information, and Modern Warfare: Challenges and Prospects in the 21st Century. In The Ethics of Information Warfare; Floridi, L., Taddeo, M., Eds.; Law, Governance and Technology Series; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 61–70 ISBN 9783319041346.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials.

Blog post
Hale, T. Scouts And Guides Grow Up To Have Better Mental Health Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: With Costs Increasing and Data Continuity at Risk, Improvements Needed in Tri-Agency Decision Making; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiao, S. Effects of Adsorbates on the Electronic Properties of Graphene. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bray, C. Barclays Charged in Qatar Fund-Raising. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials
AbbreviationMaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)1996-1944
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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