How to format your references using the Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narbonne, G.M. Geochemistry. Ocean chemistry and early animals. Science 2010, 328, 53–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen, C.P.; Reddien, P.W. Polarized notum activation at wounds inhibits Wnt function to promote planarian head regeneration. Science 2011, 332, 852–855.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wieman, C.E.; Adams, W.K.; Perkins, K.K. PHYSICS. PhET: simulations that enhance learning. Science 2008, 322, 682–683.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wei, Z.; Wang, D.; Kim, S.; Kim, S.-Y.; Hu, Y.; Yakes, M.K.; Laracuente, A.R.; Dai, Z.; Marder, S.R.; Berger, C.; et al. Nanoscale tunable reduction of graphene oxide for graphene electronics. Science 2010, 328, 1373–1376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crook, T.; Kemp, P.A. Transforming Private Landlords; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444329414.
An edited book
Progress in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling: Papers Contributed to the 4th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, Beijing, China, September 2011; Fu, S., Haase, W., Peng, S.-H., Schwamborn, D., Eds.; Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 117; ISBN 9783642318177.
A chapter in an edited book
Urbinati, A.; Brambatti, M. Intracranial Bleeding. In Clinical Cases in Cardiology: A Guide to Learning and Practice; Capucci, A., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 35–39 ISBN 9783319199252.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Is It Time To Take Science Out Of The Climate Change Debate? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Head Start: A More Comprehensive Risk Management Strategy and Data Improvements Could Further Strengthen Program Oversight; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, X. Exfoliation Corrosion Kinetics of High Strength Aluminum Alloys. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. Finishing Tarrytown Hall, in Nick of Time. New York Times 2008, WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials
AbbreviationMaterials (Basel)
ISSN (online)1996-1944
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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