How to format your references using the Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Abbott A (2000) CERN claims first experimental creation of quark-gluon plasma. European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Nature 403:581
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kabeche L, Compton DA (2013) Cyclin A regulates kinetochore microtubules to promote faithful chromosome segregation. Nature 502:110–113
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Donner SD, Kandlikar M, Zerriffi H (2011) Environment and development. Preparing to manage climate change financing. Science 334:908–909
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Ram RJ, Verberkmoes NC, Thelen MP, et al (2005) Community proteomics of a natural microbial biofilm. Science 308:1915–1920

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Möller R, Pöter H, Schwarze K (2011) Planen und Bauen mit Trapezprofilen und Sandwichelementen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
1.
Dana L-P, Ramadani V (2015) Family Businesses in Transition Economies: Management, Succession and Internationalization. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Destexhe A, Rudolph-Lilith M (2012) Integrative Properties in the Presence of Noise. In: Rudolph-Lilith M (ed) Neuronal Noise. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 111–183

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials and Structures.

Blog post
1.
Evans K (2016) Optimism Significantly Cuts Risk Of Deadly Diseases. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2011) Commercial Space Transportation: Industry Trends and Key Issues Affecting Federal Oversight and International Competitiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Liburd-Shaddai JL (2012) The experiences of remedial instructors at one urban community college: A case study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B (2017) Kekszakallu. New York Times C9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials and Structures
AbbreviationMater. Struct.
ISSN (print)1359-5997
ISSN (online)1871-6873
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

Other styles