How to format your references using the Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Crow MM (2011) Time to rethink the NIH. Nature 471:569–571
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kim W-Y, Snider WD (2008) Neuroscience. Overcoming inhibitions. Science 322:869–872
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Reese C, Heise F, Mayer A (2005) Trans-SNARE pairing can precede a hemifusion intermediate in intracellular membrane fusion. Nature 436:410–414
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Coqueugniot H, Hublin J-J, Veillon F, et al (2004) Early brain growth in Homo erectus and implications for cognitive ability. Nature 431:299–302

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Pachamanova DA, Fabozzi FJ (2010) Simulation and Optimization in Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Rau PLP (2013) Cross-Cultural Design. Methods, Practice, and Case Studies: 5th International Conference, CCD 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Taha S, Shen X (2013) Physical-Layer Location Privacy for Mobile Public Hotspots in a NEMO-Based VANET. In: Shen X (ed) Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 73–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials and Structures.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) New Horizons’ Team Announces Their Next Target. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/new-horizons-next-target/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1989) Issues Related to FAA’s Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Fay C (2017) Aposematic Variation and the Evolution of Warning Coloration in Mammals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L (2006) Justices to Say When Police Can Enter Private Home. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials and Structures
AbbreviationMater. Struct.
ISSN (print)1359-5997
ISSN (online)1871-6873
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

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