How to format your references using the Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bondi H (2004) Obituary: Thomas Gold (1920-2004). Nature 430:415
A journal article with 2 authors
Wong M, Munro S (2014) Membrane trafficking. The specificity of vesicle traffic to the Golgi is encoded in the golgin coiled-coil proteins. Science 346:1256898
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaeberlein M, Rabinovitch PS, Martin GM (2015) Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine. Science 350:1191–1193
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jonietz F, Mühlbauer S, Pfleiderer C, et al (2010) Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities. Science 330:1648–1651

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonilla LL, Teitsworth SW (2010) Nonlinear Wave Methods for Charge Transport. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Gandhi A, Malhotra N, Malhotra J, et al (2016) Principles of Critical Care in Obstetrics: Volume I, 1st ed. 2016. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Corpas FJ, Palma JM, del Río LA, Barroso JB (2016) Nitric Oxide Emission and Uptake from Higher Plants. In: Lamattina L, García-Mata C (eds) Gasotransmitters in Plants: The Rise of a New Paradigm in Cell Signaling. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Cracks in Pluto’s Moon Reveal Underground Ocean. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Missile Development: Status and Issues at the Time of the TSSAM Termination Decision. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swan C (2017) Arts participation and career preparedness: A pragmatic approach to assessing arts benefits. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2016) At 8 Feet Tall, He Sat Down and Started Getting Noticed. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials and Structures
AbbreviationMater. Struct.
ISSN (print)1359-5997
ISSN (online)1871-6873
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

Other styles