How to format your references using the Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas JM (2015) Catalysis: Tens of thousands of atoms replaced by one. Nature 525:325–326
A journal article with 2 authors
Schorlemmer D, Wiemer S (2005) Earth science: microseismicity data forecast rupture area. Nature 434:1086
A journal article with 3 authors
Mori T, Vale RD, Tomishige M (2007) How kinesin waits between steps. Nature 450:750–754
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hoegh-Guldberg O, Hughes L, McIntyre S, et al (2008) Ecology. Assisted colonization and rapid climate change. Science 321:345–346

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King M (2011) Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lolli G, Panza M, Venturi G (2015) From Logic to Practice: Italian Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Hesthaven JS, Rozza G, Stamm B (2016) Certified Error Control. In: Rozza G, Stamm B (eds) Certified Reduced Basis Methods for Parametrized Partial Differential Equations. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–66

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials and Structures.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Some Male Fiddler Crabs Trap Females In Order To Mate With Them. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Aviation Safety: Serious Problems Continue to Trouble the Air Traffic Control Work Force. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dutta A (2010) Systems optimization for mobility management. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Harvey and the Mets Struggle Again. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials and Structures
AbbreviationMater. Struct.
ISSN (print)1359-5997
ISSN (online)1871-6873
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

Other styles