How to format your references using the Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Oullier O (2012) Clear up this fuzzy thinking on brain scans. Nature 483:7
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hawkesworth CJ, Kemp AIS (2006) Evolution of the continental crust. Nature 443:811–817
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Adilakshmi T, Bellur DL, Woodson SA (2008) Concurrent nucleation of 16S folding and induced fit in 30S ribosome assembly. Nature 455:1268–1272
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Zandt G, Gilbert H, Owens TJ, et al (2004) Active foundering of a continental arc root beneath the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Nature 431:41–46

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Young S, Bramham J (2012) Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents and Adults. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Timmerhaus KD, Reed RP (2007) Cryogenic Engineering. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Garbett D (2014) Lessons on the Hoof: Learning About Teacher Education Through Horse-Riding. In: Ovens A, Fletcher T (eds) Self-Study in Physical Education Teacher Education: Exploring the interplay of practice and scholarship. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials and Structures.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2015) This Eerie Footage Appears To Show The Earth BREATHING. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1986) [Importation Into the U.S. of Automobiles That Do Not Conform With Emission Requirements]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Van Gilder BJ (2012) American students’ communication abroad: Factors promoting and inhibiting interactions with host nationals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Beschloss M (2017) The Buck Shouldn’t Stop Here. New York Times BR8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials and Structures
AbbreviationMater. Struct.
ISSN (print)1359-5997
ISSN (online)1871-6873
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

Other styles