How to format your references using the Materials and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
White TD (2007) Obituary: F. Clark Howell (1925-2007). Nature 447:52
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2002) Ecological predictions and risk assessment for alien fishes in North America. Science 298:1233–1236
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sokolov S, Scheuer T, Catterall WA (2007) Gating pore current in an inherited ion channelopathy. Nature 446:76–78
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Michor F, Hughes TP, Iwasa Y, et al (2005) Dynamics of chronic myeloid leukaemia. Nature 435:1267–1270

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wartenberg TE (2013) A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Orey M, Jones SA, Branch RM (2014) Educational Media and Technology Yearbook: Volume 38. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dowson N, Thomas P, Smith J, et al (2015) Large Scale Simplex Optimisation to Accelerate Kinetic Analysis. In: Gao F, Shi K, Li S (eds) Computational Methods for Molecular Imaging. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 35–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials and Structures.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2016) Moron Allegedly Punches Hammerhead Shark To Death On Beach. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/moron-allegedly-punches-hammerhead-shark-to-death-on-beach/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2002) Direct Student Loans: Additional Steps Would Increase Borrowers’ Awareness of Electronic Debiting and Reduce Federal Administrative Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Oteng Y (2001) Enquête sur la Pluralité Culturelle: Identité et Marginalisation dans le Roman Francophone Colonial et Postcolonial (Chraïbi, Kane, Kourouma, Boudjedra, Ben Jelloun). Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Billard M (2010) Warhol, Target: It’s All Good. New York Times E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials and Structures
AbbreviationMater. Struct.
ISSN (print)1359-5997
ISSN (online)1871-6873
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Building and Construction
General Materials Science

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