How to format your references using the Environmental Modelling and Software citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modelling and Software. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pellegrino, J.W., 2013. Proficiency in science: assessment challenges and opportunities. Science 340, 320–323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kronenberg, M., Rudensky, A., 2005. Regulation of immunity by self-reactive T cells. Nature 435, 598–604.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rieping, W., Habeck, M., Nilges, M., 2005. Inferential structure determination. Science 309, 303–306.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goren-Inbar, N., Alperson, N., Kislev, M.E., Simchoni, O., Melamed, Y., Ben-Nun, A., Werker, E., 2004. Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel. Science 304, 725–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verdu, J., 2012. Oxidative Ageing of Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dong, G., 2007. Sequence Data Mining, Advances in Database Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Stefanova, N., 2014. Animal Models, in: Wenning, G.K., Fanciulli, A. (Eds.), Multiple System Atrophy. Springer, Vienna, pp. 83–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modelling and Software.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. NASA Confirms Emergency Spacewalk After Key Equipment Failure On The ISS [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. FDA’s Activities Involving Sanitary Conditions at Food Shortage Warehouses (No. 095804). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, X., 2009. Graph-based learning for information systems (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2014. Hands Speak Louder Than Words. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pellegrino, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kronenberg and Rudensky, 2005; Pellegrino, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kronenberg and Rudensky, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Goren-Inbar et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modelling and Software
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Softw.
ISSN (print)1364-8152
Ecological Modelling
Environmental Engineering

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