How to format your references using the Environmental Modelling and Software citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modelling and Software. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balatsky, A.V., 2000. Superconductivity. From obscurity to impurity. Nature 403, 717–718.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sandalow, D.B., Bowles, I.A., 2001. Climate change. Fundamentals of treaty-making on climate change. Science 292, 1839–1840.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarborough, C.L., Ferrari, J., Godfray, H.C.J., 2005. Aphid protected from pathogen by endosymbiont. Science 310, 1781.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fialko, Y., Sandwell, D., Agnew, D., Simons, M., Shearer, P., Minster, B., 2002. Deformation on nearby faults induced by the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Science 297, 1858–1862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tapiero, C.S., 2010. Risk Finance and Asset Pricing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Singh, D. (Ed.), 2014. Advances in Plant Biopesticides. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Wiegand, M., Neubert, W.J., 2013. Genome Replication-Incompetent Sendai Virus Vaccine Vector Against Respiratory Viral Infections That Is Capable of Eliciting a Broad Spectrum of Specific Immune Response, in: Nagai, Y. (Ed.), Sendai Virus Vector: Advantages and Applications. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 91–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modelling and Software.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Ship Eating Clams Digest Wood With Gill Microbes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Expenditures for Telephone Services and Adequacy of Controls Over Such Services (No. B-118638). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gibb, A., 2012. Implementing U.S. security strategy in the 21st century: A three-part examination of the evolving role of the military in American foreign and security policy (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. Testimony By Comey Turns Into Ratings Gold. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balatsky, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balatsky, 2000; Sandalow and Bowles, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sandalow and Bowles, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Fialko et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modelling and Software
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Softw.
ISSN (print)1364-8152
Ecological Modelling
Environmental Engineering

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