How to format your references using the Environmental Modelling and Software citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modelling and Software. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Houghton, J., 2008. Meetings that changed the world: Madrid 1995: Diagnosing climate change. Nature 455, 737–738.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adrain, C., Martin, S.J., 2006. Cell biology. Double knockout blow for caspases. Science 311, 785–786.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur, B., McLoughlin, S., Vajda, V., 2014. Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science 343, 1376–1377.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martin, P.R., Lee, B.B., White, A.J., Solomon, S.G., Rüttiger, L., 2001. Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina. Nature 410, 933–936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noordenbos, G., 2013. Recovery from Eating Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Richter, M., Andresen, S. (Eds.), 2012. The Politicization of Parenthood: Shifting private and public responsibilities in education and child rearing, Children’s Well-Being: Indicators and Research. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Lawson, R.S., 2013. Gamma Camera SPECT, in: Jones, D.W., Hogg, P., Seeram, E. (Eds.), Practical SPECT/CT in Nuclear Medicine. Springer, London, pp. 47–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modelling and Software.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Some Good News About Hiring Women In STEM Doesn’t Erase Sex Bias Issue [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Recovery Act: USDA Should Include Broadband Program’s Impact in Annual Performance Reports (No. GAO-14-511). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schulz, J.L., 2015. Factors Affecting Prey Availability and Habitat Usage of Wintering Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) in Coastal Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Justices to Review Federal Ban On Disputed Abortion Method. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Houghton, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Adrain and Martin, 2006; Houghton, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Adrain and Martin, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Martin et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modelling and Software
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Softw.
ISSN (print)1364-8152
Ecological Modelling
Environmental Engineering

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