How to format your references using the Environmental Modelling and Software citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modelling and Software. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mandavilli, A., 2004. Struggling to make an impact. Nature 430, 935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ketov, S.V., Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., 2013. Localized shear deformation and softening of bulk metallic glass: stress or temperature driven? Sci. Rep. 3, 2798.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghoshal, G., Chi, L., Barabási, A.-L., 2013. Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution. Sci. Rep. 3, 2920.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, Y.-H., Li, M.-H., Zhang, Y., He, L.-L., Yamada, Y., Fitzmaurice, A., Shen, Y., Zhang, H., Tong, L., Yang, J., 2004. Structural basis of the alpha1-beta subunit interaction of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Nature 429, 675–680.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheng, V.S., Tong, J.C., 2017. Building Sustainability in East Asia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Freeman, K., Elmegreen, B., Block, D., Woolway, M. (Eds.), 2015. Lessons from the Local Group: A Conference in honour of David Block and Bruce Elmegreen. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Potter, G.B., Gibbs, J.C., Robbins, M., Langdon, P.E., 2015. Equipping with Skills to Manage Anger and Correct Thinking Errors, in: Gibbs, J.C., Robbins, M., Langdon, P.E. (Eds.), A Comprehensive Cognitive Behavioral Program for Offenders: Responsible Adult Culture. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 141–182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modelling and Software.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. Pluto May Have Always Had Its Icy Heart [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. [Query Concerning VISTA Appropriation] (No. B-207343). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vestergaard, E.V., 2015. The shadow in Latvian mythological legends: A Jungian perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S., 2017. Tally of Suspect Accounts at Wells Fargo Grows by 1.4 Million. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mandavilli, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ketov and Louzguine-Luzgin, 2013; Mandavilli, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ketov and Louzguine-Luzgin, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modelling and Software
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Softw.
ISSN (print)1364-8152
Ecological Modelling
Environmental Engineering

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