How to format your references using the Environmental Modelling and Software citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modelling and Software. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Govindan, R., 2014. Cancer. Attack of the clones. Science 346, 169–170.
A journal article with 2 authors
Etienne, R.S., Rosindell, J., 2012. Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science 336, 1639; author reply 1639.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meloso, D., Copic, J., Bossaerts, P., 2009. Promoting intellectual discovery: patents versus markets. Science 323, 1335–1339.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chworos, A., Severcan, I., Koyfman, A.Y., Weinkam, P., Oroudjev, E., Hansma, H.G., Jaeger, L., 2004. Building programmable jigsaw puzzles with RNA. Science 306, 2068–2072.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huddleston, R., 2010. Android® Fully Loaded. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Magnenat-Thalmann, N., Zhang, J.J., Feng, D.D. (Eds.), 2009. Recent Advances in the 3D Physiological Human. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodrigues, E.R., Achcar, J.A., 2013. Modeling the Time Between Ozone Exceedances, in: Achcar, J.A. (Ed.), Applications of Discrete-Time Markov Chains and Poisson Processes to Air Pollution Modeling and Studies, SpringerBriefs in Mathematics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 65–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modelling and Software.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Nanoparticles Used To Remove Pollutants Could Lead To Cleaner Drinking Water And Soil [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. At-Risk Youth: School-Community Collaborations Focus on Improving Student Outcomes (No. GAO-01-66). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson, B.N., 2013. Motivation towards learning perceived in Socratic seminar versus traditional lecture (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2017. Is It Really Opera? That’s Beside the Point. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Govindan, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Etienne and Rosindell, 2012; Govindan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Etienne and Rosindell, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chworos et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modelling and Software
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Softw.
ISSN (print)1364-8152
Ecological Modelling
Environmental Engineering

Other styles