How to format your references using the Environmental Modelling and Software citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modelling and Software. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beall, J., 2012. Predatory publishers are corrupting open access. Nature 489, 179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denef, V.J., Banfield, J.F., 2012. In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids. Science 336, 462–466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logoteta, D., Fiori, G., Iannaccone, G., 2014. Graphene-based lateral heterostructure transistors exhibit better intrinsic performance than graphene-based vertical transistors as post-CMOS devices. Sci. Rep. 4, 6607.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tu, B.P., Kudlicki, A., Rowicka, M., McKnight, S.L., 2005. Logic of the yeast metabolic cycle: temporal compartmentalization of cellular processes. Science 310, 1152–1158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mynbaev, K.T., 2011. Short-Memory Linear Processes and Econometric Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mitsikostas, D.D., Paemeleire, K. (Eds.), 2016. Pharmacological Management of Headaches, Headache. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Iwata, H., Shimada, K., 2013. Sensory Properties of Cosmetics, in: Shimada, K. (Ed.), Formulas, Ingredients and Production of Cosmetics: Technology of Skin- and Hair-Care Products in Japan. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 103–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modelling and Software.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Here’s Why Daylight Saving Time Isn’t Worth The Trouble It Causes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Federal Aviation Administration: An Analysis of the Financial Viability of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund (No. GAO-06-562T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wetherington, J.M., 2010. The relationship between learning organization dimensions and performance in the nonprofit sector (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., 2016. Measure in Florida That Claims to Support Solar Power Could Discourage It. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beall, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Beall, 2012; Denef and Banfield, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Denef and Banfield, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Tu et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modelling and Software
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Softw.
ISSN (print)1364-8152
Ecological Modelling
Environmental Engineering

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