How to format your references using the Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wolstenholme, A.J. Evolution. Surviving in a toxic world. Science 2012, 335, 545–546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fetler, L.; Amigorena, S. Neuroscience. Brain under surveillance: the microglia patrol. Science 2005, 309, 392–393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoskinson, E.; Packard, R.E.; Haard, T.M. Oscillatory motion: quantum whistling in superfluid helium-4. Nature 2005, 433, 376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, K.; Hirst, J.; Camba, R.; Bonagura, C.A.; Stout, C.D.; Burgess, B.K.; Armstrong, F.A. Atomically defined mechanism for proton transfer to a buried redox centre in a protein. Nature 2000, 405, 814–817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong, R.A.; Hilton, A.C. Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470905173.
An edited book
Multi-scale Dynamical Processes in Space and Astrophysical Plasmas; Leubner, M.P., Vörös, Z., Eds.; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 33; ISBN 9783642304415.
A chapter in an edited book
Adaricheva, K.; Nation, J.B. Convex Geometries. In Lattice Theory: Special Topics and Applications: Volume 2; Grätzer, G., Wehrung, F., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 153–179 ISBN 9783319442358.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz, S. PETA Runs Deceptive Campaign About Autism Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Women’s Educational Equity Act: A Review of Program Goals and Strategies Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bortle, C.D. The role of mnemonic acronyms in clinical emergency medicine: A grounded theory study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF Man Of Steel Lands On the iPhone. New York Times 2010, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine
ISSN (online)2504-463X

Other styles