How to format your references using the Marine Ecology Progress Series citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Ecology Progress Series. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madden JD (2007) Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions. Science 318:1094–1097.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ma J, Lindquist S (2002) Conversion of PrP to a self-perpetuating PrPSc-like conformation in the cytosol. Science 298:1785–1788.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gray HM, Gray K, Wegner DM (2007) Dimensions of mind perception. Science 315:619.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lynch JA, Brent AE, Leaf DS, Pultz MA, Desplan C (2006) Localized maternal orthodenticle patterns anterior and posterior in the long germ wasp Nasonia. Nature 439:728–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Billingsley J (2006) Essentials of Mechatronics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gannon T, Fletcher M, Ball T (eds) (2005) Mack Scogin Merrill Elam: Knowlton Hall. Princeton Archit. Press, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandberg R (2014) Least Absolute Deviation Based Unit Root Tests in Smooth Transition Type of Models. In: Advances in Non-linear Economic Modeling: Theory and Applications. Dynamic Modeling and Econometrics in Economics and Finance, Schleer-van Gellecom F (ed) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p 141–166

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Blog post
Evans K (2016) NASA’s $1 Billion Jupiter Probe Has Suffered 2 Big Problems In 2 Days. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Airline Competition: Impact of FAA Legislation on Passenger Facilities Charges and Trust Fund Spending. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharp LM (2009) Creative nonfiction illuminated: Cross-disciplinary spotlights. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J (2016) Worn With Pride. New York Times:MB9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Madden 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ma & Lindquist 2002, Madden 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ma & Lindquist 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gray et al. 2007)
  • 99 or more authors: (Lynch et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Ecology Progress Series
AbbreviationMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
ISSN (print)0171-8630
ISSN (online)1616-1599
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles