How to format your references using the Marine Ecology Progress Series citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Ecology Progress Series. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montesi LGJ (2013) Planetary science. Solving the mascon mystery. Science 340:1535–1536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyithe JSB, Loeb A (2006) Suppression of dwarf galaxy formation by cosmic reionization. Nature 441:322–324.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bockrath C, Ballhaus C, Holzheid A (2004) Fractionation of the platinum-group elements during mantle melting. Science 305:1951–1953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nishiyama T, Yoshizaki N, Kishimoto T, Ohsumi K (2007) Transient activation of calcineurin is essential to initiate embryonic development in Xenopus laevis. Nature 449:341–345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmann H, Steinle A (2012) Precast Concrete Structures. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Mobilio S, Boscherini F, Meneghini C (eds) (2015) Synchrotron Radiation: Basics, Methods and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Schoon S (2014) Three Olds: Experimental Urban Restructuring with Chinese Characteristics, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Comparison. In: Maturing Megacities: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation. Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research, Altrock U, Schoon S (eds) Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p 105–121

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Crow Hitches a Ride on a Bald Eagle. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) School Meal Programs: Implications of Adjusting Income Eligibility Thresholds and Reimbursement Rates by Geographic Differences. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams K (2014) Riot Bias: A Textual Analysis of Pussy Riot’s Coverage in Russian and American Media. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg M, Risen J (2017) Trump’s Intelligence Nominee Gets an Early Lesson in Managing the White House. New York Times:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montesi 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Wyithe & Loeb 2006, Montesi 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wyithe & Loeb 2006)
  • Three authors: (Bockrath et al. 2004)
  • 99 or more authors: (Nishiyama et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Ecology Progress Series
AbbreviationMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
ISSN (print)0171-8630
ISSN (online)1616-1599
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles