How to format your references using the Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Papaloizou JCB. 2008. Astronomy. Planetary system formation. Science. 321(5890):777–778.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vojvodic A, Nørskov JK. 2011. Chemistry. Optimizing perovskites for the water-splitting reaction. Science. 334(6061):1355–1356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prahlad V, Cornelius T, Morimoto RI. 2008. Regulation of the cellular heat shock response in Caenorhabditis elegans by thermosensory neurons. Science. 320(5877):811–814.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Dupont S, Morsut L, Aragona M, Enzo E, Giulitti S, Cordenonsi M, Zanconato F, Le Digabel J, Forcato M, Bicciato S, et al. 2011. Role of YAP/TAZ in mechanotransduction. Nature. 474(7350):179–183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H. 2016. Design of Steel Structures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Salvi RJ, Popper AN, Fay RR, editors. 2008. Hair Cell Regeneration, Repair, and Protection. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lilenfeld LRR. 2016. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders. In: Latzer Y, Stein D, editors. Bio-Psycho-Social Contributions to Understanding Eating Disorders. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. New Horizons Spacecraft Captures Pluto And Charon’s Orbital Dance. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Motor Vehicle Safety: NHTSA Should Resume Its Support of State Periodic Inspection Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell SF. 2009. Life-review therapy: A prevention program for the elderly who are experiencing life transitions. A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. 2013. Maybe Animals Just Need Quality Time With Friends. New York Times.:A23B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Papaloizou 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Papaloizou 2008; Vojvodic & Nørskov 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vojvodic & Nørskov 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Dupont et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
AbbreviationMar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1023-6244
ISSN (online)1029-0362
ScopeAquatic Science

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