How to format your references using the Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore P. 2005. PCR: replicating success. Nature. 435(7039):235–238.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chakravarti A, Little P. 2003. Nature, nurture and human disease. Nature. 421(6921):412–414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia CL, Lentzen M, Urban K. 2003. Atomic-resolution imaging of oxygen in perovskite ceramics. Science. 299(5608):870–873.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Nishita M, Hashimoto MK, Ogata S, Laurent MN, Ueno N, Shibuya H, Cho KW. 2000. Interaction between Wnt and TGF-beta signalling pathways during formation of Spemann’s organizer. Nature. 403(6771):781–785.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBattista M. 2010. Novel Characters. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Tsesis I, editor. 2014. Complications in Endodontic Surgery: Prevention, Identification and Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Roelofsen JMK, Lindemann U. 2010. An Approach Towards Planning Development Processes According to the Design Situation. In: Heisig P, Clarkson PJ, Vajna S, editors. Modelling and Management of Engineering Processes. London: Springer; p. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. The Beetle That’s Whiter Than Paper. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Hazardous Weather Detection and Warning Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Usborne EL. 2012. Sediment and phosphorus dynamics behind weirs in agricultural drainage ditches [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey N, Abad S. 2017. Pope Francis Visits Colombia, Where Even Peace Is Polarizing. New York Times.:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chakravarti and Little 2003; Moore 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chakravarti and Little 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishita et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
AbbreviationMar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1023-6244
ISSN (online)1029-0362
ScopeAquatic Science

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