How to format your references using the Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huang LE. 2013. Biochemistry. How HIF-1α handles stress. Science. 339(6125):1285–1286.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell N, Grayson M. 2014. Nature Index 2014 china. Nature. 516(7531):S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonsamo A, Chen JM, Wu C. 2013. Citizen Science: linking the recent rapid advances of plant flowering in Canada with climate variability. Sci Rep. 3:2239.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Schwarz D, Matta BM, Shakir-Botteri NL, McPheron BA. 2005. Host shift to an invasive plant triggers rapid animal hybrid speciation. Nature. 436(7050):546–549.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moritz FG. 2013. Electromechanical Motion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Muralikrishnan B. 2009. Computational Surface and Roundness Metrology. Raja J, editor. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cleophas TJ, Zwinderman AH. 2014. Loglinear Models for Assessing Incident Rates with Varying Incident Risks (12 Populations with Different Drink Consumption Patterns). In: Zwinderman AH, editor. Machine Learning in Medicine - Cookbook Three. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 35–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. SpaceX Launch Currently A Go. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Is Working to Ensure Continuity but Needs to Quickly Address Information Security Weaknesses and Future Program Uncertainties. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGaughey KM. 2017. Textural juxtaposition: Representing the natural and the human in Elements [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2008. Where the Romanovs Became Holy Martyrs. New York Times.:TR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huang 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Huang 2013; Campbell and Grayson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and Grayson 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwarz et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
AbbreviationMar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1023-6244
ISSN (online)1029-0362
ScopeAquatic Science

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