How to format your references using the Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherwood Lollar B. 2004. Geochemistry. Life’s chemical kitchen. Science. 304(5673):972–973.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reddy GV, Meyerowitz EM. 2005. Stem-cell homeostasis and growth dynamics can be uncoupled in the Arabidopsis shoot apex. Science. 310(5748):663–667.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeffer WT, Harper JT, O’Neel S. 2008. Kinematic constraints on glacier contributions to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science. 321(5894):1340–1343.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Xie J, Wu H, Dai C, Pan Q, Ding Z, Hu D, Ji B, Luo Y, Hu X. 2014. Beyond Warburg effect--dual metabolic nature of cancer cells. Sci Rep. 4:4927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner DJ. 2016. The ETF Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kumar H. 2016. Rapid Game Development Using Cocos2d-JS: An end-to-end guide to 2D game development using JavaScript. Rahman A, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Heun MK, Carbajales-Dale M, Haney BR. 2015. Flows of Direct Energy. In: Carbajales-Dale M, Haney BR, editors. Beyond GDP: National Accounting in the Age of Resource Depletion. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 79–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology.

Blog post
Davis J. 2016. Researchers Plan On Resurrecting The Extinct Great Auk. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Competitive Financing Mechanisms: Auctions Used by Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene GL. 2015. An Analysis of the Comparison between Classroom Grades Earned with a Standards-Based Grading System and Grade-Level Assessment Scores as Measured by the Missouri Assessment Program [Doctoral dissertation]. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B. 2015. Size of Manhunt Area for 2nd Prison Escapee Significantly Expanded. New York Times.:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sherwood Lollar 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sherwood Lollar 2004; Reddy and Meyerowitz 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reddy and Meyerowitz 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Xie et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology
AbbreviationMar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1023-6244
ISSN (online)1029-0362
ScopeAquatic Science

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