How to format your references using the Managing Leisure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Managing Leisure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark, P. U. (2002). Early deglaciation in the tropical Andes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5591), 7; discussion 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuo, I.-F. W., & Mundy, C. J. (2004). An ab initio molecular dynamics study of the aqueous liquid-vapor interface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5658), 658–660.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirn, T. J., Jude, B. A., & Taylor, R. K. (2005). A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection. Nature, 438(7069), 863–866.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wei, X., Shao, M., Gale, W., & Li, L. (2014). Global pattern of soil carbon losses due to the conversion of forests to agricultural land. Scientific Reports, 4, 4062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burk, F. (1997). Lebesgue Measure and Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yu, X. (2010). Introduction to Evolutionary Algorithms (M. Gen, Ed.; Vol. 0). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gemmeke, T., Sabry, M. M., Stuijt, J., Schuddinck, P., Raghavan, P., & Catthoor, F. (2016). Memories for NTC. In M. Hübner & C. Silvano (Eds.), Near Threshold Computing: Technology, Methods and Applications (pp. 75–100). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Managing Leisure.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, March 13). Check Out What Comes Crawling Out Of This Elephant. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Airline Competition: Fares and Concentration at Small-City Airports (RCED-91-51). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsieh, H.-C. (2010). Self-access center and autonomous learning: EFL college students’ motivations, activities and perceptions of learning effectiveness [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2016, December 1). When Fake News was Funny. New York Times, BR41.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clark, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Clark, 2002; Kuo & Mundy, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuo & Mundy, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Kirn et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wei et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleManaging Leisure
ISSN (print)1360-6719
ISSN (online)1466-450X
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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