How to format your references using the Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koshland, D.E., Jr, 2004. Crazy, but correct. Nature 432, 447.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conley, M.E., Fruman, D.A., 2013. Genetics. Can cancer drugs treat immunodeficiency? Science 342, 814–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mihalcescu, I., Hsing, W., Leibler, S., 2004. Resilient circadian oscillator revealed in individual cyanobacteria. Nature 430, 81–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kvist, A., Lindström A, Green, M., Piersma, T., Visser, G.H., 2001. Carrying large fuel loads during sustained bird flight is cheaper than expected. Nature 413, 730–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diab, W.W., Frazier, H.M., 2011. Ethernet in the First Mile. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bai, Z., 2010. Spectral Analysis of Large Dimensional Random Matrices, Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanfelice Bazanella, A., Campestrini, L., Eckhard, D., 2012. Convergence to the Globally Optimal Controller, in: Campestrini, L., Eckhard, D. (Eds.), Data-Driven Controller Design: The H2 Approach, Communications and Control Engineering. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 89–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Sea Level Is Rising Fast – And It Seems To Be Speeding Up [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. Classification and Qualification Standards for the GS-1410 Library-Information Service Series (No. GGD-83-97). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adler, A.D., 2012. Change in Automatic and Strategic Cognition: An Examination of Cognitive Therapy for Depression (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2011. Cuts for the Already Retired. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koshland, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Conley and Fruman, 2013; Koshland, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conley and Fruman, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kvist et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Microbiology
AbbreviationFood Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0740-0020
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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