How to format your references using the Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P., 2003. Antibodies where you want them. Nature 426, 729.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peebles, P.J.E., Unruh, W.G., 2008. Obituary: John Wheeler (1911-2008). Nature 453, 50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldman, S.R., Ebright, R.H., Nickels, B.E., 2009. Direct detection of abortive RNA transcripts in vivo. Science 324, 927–928.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blewett, D.T., Chabot, N.L., Denevi, B.W., Ernst, C.M., Head, J.W., Izenberg, N.R., Murchie, S.L., Solomon, S.C., Nittler, L.R., McCoy, T.J., Xiao, Z., Baker, D.M.H., Fassett, C.I., Braden, S.E., Oberst, J., Scholten, F., Preusker, F., Hurwitz, D.M., 2011. Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER evidence for geologically recent volatile-related activity. Science 333, 1856–1859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBain, G.D., 2012. Theory of Lift. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Beilina, L. (Ed.), 2013. Applied Inverse Problems: Select Contributions from the First Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Muramatsu, A., Kanie, K., 2006. Mechanistic Study on Formation of Iron Hydroxides and Oxides with FT-IR and UV Photospectroscopy, in: Waseda, Y., Suzuki, S. (Eds.), Characterization of Corrosion Products on Steel Surfaces. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 51–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Nearly 78 Percent Of All Childhood Diarrhea Infections Caused By Just Six Pathogens [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Transportation Safety: Results of Collection of Information on State Permitting Practices for Oversize Vehicles (GAO-15-235SP, February 2015), an E-supplement to GAO-15-236 [Reissued on February 27, 2015] (No. GAO-15-235SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duggimpudi, M.B., 2017. Object Ranking Algorithms for Improved Decision Making (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2017. Robert Kirkman Plans New Comic Book Series. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Moore, 2003; Peebles and Unruh, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peebles and Unruh, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Blewett et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Microbiology
AbbreviationFood Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0740-0020
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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