How to format your references using the Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones, D., 2001. DaedalusThe tense road. Nature 411, 758.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neuman, Y., Cohen, Y., 2014. A vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment. Sci. Rep. 4, 4761.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nimmerjahn, A., Kirchhoff, F., Helmchen, F., 2005. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 308, 1314–1318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tomita, S., Adesnik, H., Sekiguchi, M., Zhang, W., Wada, K., Howe, J.R., Nicoll, R.A., Bredt, D.S., 2005. Stargazin modulates AMPA receptor gating and trafficking by distinct domains. Nature 435, 1052–1058.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciobanu, C.V., Wang, C.-Z., Ho, K.-M., 2013. Atomic Structure Prediction of Nanostructures, Clusters and Surfaces. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Lehner, W., 2013. Web-Scale Data Management for the Cloud. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Murthy, D.N.P., Jack, N., 2014. Introduction to Stochastic Optimisation and Game Theory, in: Jack, N. (Ed.), Extended Warranties, Maintenance Service and Lease Contracts: Modeling and Analysis for Decision-Making, Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. Springer, London, pp. 77–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Curbing Cow Burps Could Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Telecommunications: Impact of Sports Programming Costs on Cable Television Rates (No. RCED-99-136). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swift, I., 2011. The Perceived Effect of Hidden Costs on the Operational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2010. Russia: Fire Destroys Church Near Ravine Where Remains of a Czar Were Found. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jones, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jones, 2001; Neuman and Cohen, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neuman and Cohen, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tomita et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Microbiology
AbbreviationFood Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0740-0020
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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