How to format your references using the Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles, S., 2009. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors? Science 324, 1293–1298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kane, C.L., Mele, E.J., 2006. Physics. A new spin on the insulating state. Science 314, 1692–1693.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iwai, M., Yokono, M., Nakano, A., 2014. Visualizing structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes. Sci. Rep. 4, 3768.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dawes, A.M.C., Illing, L., Clark, S.M., Gauthier, D.J., 2005. All-optical switching in rubidium vapor. Science 308, 672–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strachman, D., Bookbinder, R., 2009. Fund of Funds Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vasudevan, A., 2014. Trustworthy Execution on Mobile Devices, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosas-Tellez, L.V., Zanella-Palacios, V., Martínez-Flores, J.L., 2013. Solution of a Modified Balanced Academic Curriculum Problem Using Evolutionary Strategies, in: Madani, K., Dourado, A., Rosa, A., Filipe, J. (Eds.), Computational Intelligence: Revised and Selected Papers of the International Joint Conference, IJCCI 2011, Paris, France, October 24-26, 2011, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Sugary Drinks may Contribute to Almost 200,000 Deaths Worldwide each Year [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. [Query Concerning VISTA Appropriation] (No. B-207343). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washburn, S.J., 2006. The Epiphytic Macrolichens of the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016. A High-Tech Head Trip Through an Amazon Labyrinth. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowles, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bowles, 2009; Kane and Mele, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kane and Mele, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Dawes et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Microbiology
AbbreviationFood Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0740-0020
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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