How to format your references using the Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brandeker, A., 2014. Astronomy. A different class of planets. Science 343, 1440–1441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, J.-H., Paull, T.T., 2005. ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Science 308, 551–554.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kokoeva, M.V., Yin, H., Flier, J.S., 2005. Neurogenesis in the hypothalamus of adult mice: potential role in energy balance. Science 310, 679–683.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bourlat, S.J., Nielsen, C., Lockyer, A.E., Littlewood, D.T.J., Telford, M.J., 2003. Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs. Nature 424, 925–928.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tripathi, N., Singh, R.S., Hills, C.D., 2016. Reclamation of Mine-Impacted Land for Ecosystem Recovery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Maheshwari, D.K. (Ed.), 2015. Bacterial Metabolites in Sustainable Agroecosystem, Sustainable Development and Biodiversity. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Meslé, F., Vallin, J., Shkolnikov, V., 2012. Eighty Years of Sex-Specific and Age-Specific Mortality Trends, in: Vallin, J. (Ed.), Mortality and Causes of Death in 20th-Century Ukraine, Demographic Research Monographs. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 89–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Here’s How The Brain Develops A Taste For Lying [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Commercial Aviation: Financial Condition and Industry Responses Affect Competition (No. GAO-03-171T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume, D.A., 2013. An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., 2017. In Trump’s Silence, Pence Takes a Swipe at Russia. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brandeker, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brandeker, 2014; Lee and Paull, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Paull, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bourlat et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Microbiology
AbbreviationFood Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0740-0020
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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