How to format your references using the Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kühlbrandt, W., 2014. Biochemistry. The resolution revolution. Science 343, 1443–1444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Read, S.M., Bacic, T., 2002. Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose. Science 295, 59–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dloniak, S.M., French, J.A., Holekamp, K.E., 2006. Rank-related maternal effects of androgens on behaviour in wild spotted hyaenas. Nature 440, 1190–1193.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tanaka, K., Tengeiji, A., Kato, T., Toyama, N., Shionoya, M., 2003. A discrete self-assembled metal array in artificial DNA. Science 299, 1212–1213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu, J., 2013. Way of the Trade. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zarate, C.A., Manji, H.K. (Eds.), 2009. Bipolar Depression: Molecular Neurobiology, Clinical Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy, Milestones in Drug Therapy. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Zalewski, J., 2013. The Post-Process Era in Composition Studies and the Linguistic Turn of the 20th Century, in: Gabryś-Barker, D., Piechurska-Kuciel, E., Zybert, J. (Eds.), Investigations in Teaching and Learning Languages: Studies in Honour of Hanna Komorowska, Second Language Learning and Teaching. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, pp. 51–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Could You Be Related To Genghis Khan? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. FAA Registry Systems: Key Steps Need to Be Performed Before Modernization Proceeds (No. IMTEC-91-29). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vianna, M.H., 2015. An exploration of the factors that influence Brazilian students’ fluency of English: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. Some Gifts Go in the Closet. These Go on the Block. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kühlbrandt, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kühlbrandt, 2014; Read and Bacic, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Read and Bacic, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Microbiology
AbbreviationFood Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0740-0020
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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