How to format your references using the Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal (MOJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin E. Stem cells: Transplants on trial. Nature. 2011;480(7377):S46-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hardie RC, Franze K. Photomechanical responses in Drosophila photoreceptors. Science. 2012;338(6104):260-263.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acar M, Becskei A, van Oudenaarden A. Enhancement of cellular memory by reducing stochastic transitions. Nature. 2005;435(7039):228-232.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Verlet JRR, Bragg AE, Kammrath A, Cheshnovsky O, Neumark DM. Observation of large water-cluster anions with surface-bound excess electrons. Science. 2005;307(5706):93-96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toy M. Networks and Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Grewal IS, ed. Therapeutic Targets of the TNF Superfamily. Vol 647. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Gollub T, Busse M, Stein B, Hagen M. Keyqueries for Clustering and Labeling. In: Ma S, Wen J-R, Liu Y, Dou Z, Zhang M, Chang Y, et al., eds. Information Retrieval Technology: 12th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2016, Beijing, China, November 30 – December 2, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:42-55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Failed Stars Could Reveal New Clues About How Planets Form. IFLScience. Published September 27, 2016. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Drug Education: Limited Progress in Program Evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrew C. Living with Diabetes: The Value of Everyday Communication. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPIAGN: Undeclared Candidate; Where Perot Exhibits A Lifetime of Memories. New York Times. June 20, 1992:18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMalaysian Orthopaedic Journal
ISSN (print)1985-2533
ISSN (online)2232-111X

Other styles