How to format your references using the Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal (MOJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Sharing information is preferable to patenting. Nature. 2013;498(7454):273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu P, Werb Z. Patterning mechanisms of branched organs. Science. 2008;322(5907):1506-1509.
A journal article with 3 authors
Savrasov SY, Kotliar G, Abrahams E. Correlated electrons in delta-plutonium within a dynamical mean-field picture. Nature. 2001;410(6830):793-795.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jaramillo TF, Jørgensen KP, Bonde J, Nielsen JH, Horch S, Chorkendorff I. Identification of active edge sites for electrochemical H2 evolution from MoS2 nanocatalysts. Science. 2007;317(5834):100-102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H. Design of Steel Structures. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2014.
An edited book
Penn JS, ed. Retinal and Choroidal Angiogenesis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Reed K, Bornstein BH. Using Mock Jury Studies to Measure Community Sentiment Toward Child Sexual Abusers. In: Miller MK, Blumenthal JA, Chamberlain J, eds. Handbook of Community Sentiment. New York, NY: Springer; 2015:57-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal.

Blog post
Luntz S. Bizarre Asteroid Has “Negative Gravity.” IFLScience.“negative-gravity”/. Published August 14, 2014. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Embedded Computer Systems: C-17 Software Development Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller A. Group Mentoring Program to Empower Transitional-Aged Youth: A Grant Proposal. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ruiz RR, Longman J. Brazil’s Economic Woes Force Paralympic Cuts. New York Times. August 19, 2016:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMalaysian Orthopaedic Journal
ISSN (print)1985-2533
ISSN (online)2232-111X

Other styles