How to format your references using the Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal (MOJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wassarman PM. Development. The sperm’s sweet tooth. Science. 2011;333(6050):1708-1709.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dasgupta P, Ramanathan V. Environment and development. Pursuit of the common good. Science. 2014;345(6203):1457-1458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sim MS, Bosak T, Ono S. Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. Science. 2011;333(6038):74-77.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim J, Ishiguro K-I, Nambu A, Akiyoshi B, Yokobayashi S, Kagami A, et al. Author Correction: Meikin is a conserved regulator of meiosis-I-specific kinetochore function. Nature. 2018;563(7731):E23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff M, Roberts K, et al. Molekularbiologie Der Zelle. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
Chan ETY, O’Sullivan M, eds. The Humanities in Contemporary Chinese Contexts. Vol 2. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Asano T, Kirkpatrick D, Nakagawa K, Watanabe O. $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ -Space and Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Planar Directed Graph Reachability. In: Csuhaj-Varjú E, Dietzfelbinger M, Ésik Z, eds. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2014: 39th International Symposium, MFCS 2014, Budapest, Hungary, August 25-29, 2014. Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014:45-56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mating Market Theory: The Math Of One-Night Stands And Long-Term Relationships. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trichon MC. Self-Help Conferences for People Who Stutter: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. A Sports Betting App Raises $12 Million. New York Times. May 15, 2017:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMalaysian Orthopaedic Journal
ISSN (print)1985-2533
ISSN (online)2232-111X

Other styles