How to format your references using the Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal (MOJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahan D. Fixing the communications failure. Nature. 2010;463(7279):296-297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crida A, Charnoz S. Formation of regular satellites from ancient massive rings in the solar system. Science. 2012;338(6111):1196-1199.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biastoch A, Böning CW, Lutjeharms JRE. Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature. 2008;456(7221):489-492.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gandal MJ, Haney JR, Parikshak NN, Leppa V, Ramaswami G, Hartl C, et al. Shared molecular neuropathology across major psychiatric disorders parallels polygenic overlap. Science. 2018;359(6376):693-697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner H. Managing Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Prain G, Lee-Smith D, Karanja N, eds. African Urban Harvest: Agriculture in the Cities of Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Spaargaren G, van Koppen CSAK. Provider Strategies and the Greening of Consumption Practices: Exploring the Role of Companies in Sustainable Consumption. In: Meier L, Lange H, eds. The New Middle Classes: Globalizing Lifestyles, Consumerism and Environmental Concern. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009:81-100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal.

Blog post
Evans K. Your Pet Is Actually A Sneaky Master Of Doggie Deception. IFLScience. Published March 10, 2017. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Improved Planning and Performance Measures Are Needed to Help Ensure Successful Technology Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen TH. Adolescent substance use family-based treatment: A grant proposal project. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Stay Execution, A Signal to Lower Courts. New York Times. October 31, 2007:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleMalaysian Orthopaedic Journal
ISSN (print)1985-2533
ISSN (online)2232-111X

Other styles