How to format your references using the Malaria Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Malaria Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bonetta L. Gene expression: an expression of interest. Nature. 2006;440:1233–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gneiting T, Raftery AE. Atmospheric science. Weather forecasting with ensemble methods. Science. 2005;310:248–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Vinther J, Van Roy P, Briggs DEG. Machaeridians are Palaeozoic armoured annelids. Nature. 2008;451:185–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sallon S, Solowey E, Cohen Y, Korchinsky R, Egli M, Woodhatch I, et al. Germination, genetics, and growth of an ancient date seed. Science. 2008;320:1464.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Omura G, Benton BC. Mastering AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Picot A, Lorenz J, editors. ICT for the Next Five Billion People: Information and Communication for Sustainable Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bangerter E, Camenisch J, Lysyanskaya A. A Cryptographic Framework for the Controlled Release of Certified Data. In: Christianson B, Crispo B, Malcolm JA, Roe M, editors. Security Protocols: 12th International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, April 26-28, 2004 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 20–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Malaria Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Revolutionize the Search for Other Worlds [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Assessment of the Commerce Department’s Report on Worker Demand and Supply. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: T-HEHS-98-144.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Norris EL. A depth psychological view of the Christian myth: C. G. Jung, Elizabeth Boyden Howes, and the Guild for Psychological Studies [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McCAIN J. I Choose the Kurds. New York Times. 2017 Oct 24;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMalaria Journal
AbbreviationMalar. J.
ISSN (online)1475-2875
Infectious Diseases

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