How to format your references using the Lung India citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung India. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Briciu A-E. Wavelet analysis of lunar semidiurnal tidal influence on selected inland rivers across the globe. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 26;4:4193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hashizume K, Chaussidon M. A non-terrestrial 16O-rich isotopic composition for the protosolar nebula. Nature. 2005 Mar 31;434(7033):619–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugden A, Smith J, Pennisi E. The future of forests. Science. 2008 Jun 13;320(5882):1435.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ko Y-H, Song J, Leung B, Han J, Cho Y-H. Multi-color broadband visible light source via GaN hexagonal annular structure. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 1;4:5514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saccone C, Pesole G. Handbook of Comparative Genomics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Mah KK. Learning and Teaching Tools for Basic and Clinical Respiratory Physiology. Cheng HM, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XI, 100 p. 35 illus. (SpringerBriefs in Physiology).
A chapter in an edited book
Drews G, Krippeit-Drews P, Düfer M. Electrophysiology of Islet Cells. In: Islam MS, editor. Islets of Langerhans. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 249–303.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung India.

Blog post
Taub B. 99.85% Of Americans Will Know A Victim Of Gun Violence At Some Point In Their Lives. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Competitiveness: The Challenge of the Deficit. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Apr. Report No.: 144362.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton N-Q. A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nossiter A, Gladstone R. Series of Shootings and Blasts, Apparently Coordinated. New York Times. 2015 Nov 13;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLung India
AbbreviationLung India
ISSN (print)0970-2113
ISSN (online)0974-598X
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles