How to format your references using the Lung India citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung India. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Honour JW. The fight for fair play. Nature. 2004 Jul 8;430(6996):143–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herberstein ME, Kemp DJ. Physiology. A clearer view from fuzzy images. Science. 2012 Jan 27;335(6067):409–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai J, Virovets AV, Scheer M. Synthesis of inorganic fullerene-like molecules. Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):781–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dou J, Vorobieva AA, Sheffler W, Doyle LA, Park H, Bick MJ, et al. De novo design of a fluorescence-activating β-barrel. Nature. 2018 Sep;561(7724):485–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
Zheng X. Stock Market Modeling and Forecasting: A System Adaptation Approach. Chen BM, editor. London: Springer; 2013. XII, 161 p. 92 illus. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences; vol. 442).
A chapter in an edited book
Appelmann I, Liersch R, Kessler T, Mesters RM, Berdel WE. Angiogenesis Inhibition in Cancer Therapy. In: Liersch R, Berdel WE, Kessler T, editors. Angiogenesis Inhibition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 51–81. (Recent Results in Cancer Research).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung India.

Blog post
Fang J. Alien-Looking Spiky, Leggy Worm Gets a Head for the First Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Changes Needed in Administering Relief to Industries Hurt by Overseas Competition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Aug. Report No.: ID-81-42.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glock M. Cultural futuristics: Bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario based planning [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Drape J. Co-Founder of Alibaba Is Said to Buy a 49 Percent Stake in the Nets. New York Times. 2017 Oct 27;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLung India
AbbreviationLung India
ISSN (print)0970-2113
ISSN (online)0974-598X
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles