How to format your references using the Lung India citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung India. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCarty M. Discovering genes are made of DNA. Nature. 2003 Jan 23;421(6921):406.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kopec C, Malinow R. Neuroscience. Matters of size. Science. 2006 Dec 8;314(5805):1554–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park SH, Zarrinpar A, Lim WA. Rewiring MAP kinase pathways using alternative scaffold assembly mechanisms. Science. 2003 Feb 14;299(5609):1061–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bonn DA, Wynn JC, Gardner BW, Lin YJ, Liang R, Hardy WN, et al. A limit on spin-charge separation in high-Tc superconductors from the absence of a vortex-memory effect. Nature. 2001;414(6866):887–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
“MAX” Maxfield C, Brown A. The Definitive Guide to How Computers Do Math. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Mély Y, Duportail G, editors. Fluorescent Methods to Study Biological Membranes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XIV, 486 p. (Springer Series on Fluorescence, Methods and Applications; vol. 13).
A chapter in an edited book
Starov O, Vilkomir S, Gorbenko A, Kharchenko V. Testing-as-a-Service for Mobile Applications: State-of-the-Art Survey. In: Zamojski W, Sugier J, editors. Dependability Problems of Complex Information Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 55–71. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung India.

Blog post
Fang J. Russian Man Will Become Subject Of First Human Head Transplant Ever Performed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Biotechnology: Role of Institutional Biosafety Committees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Dec. Report No.: RCED-88-64BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koyanagi T. Design and Synthesis of Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS. Car Chase, White House To Capitol, Has Fatal End. New York Times. 2013 Oct 3;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLung India
AbbreviationLung India
ISSN (print)0970-2113
ISSN (online)0974-598X
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles