How to format your references using the Lung India citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung India. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zahnle K. Planetary science. Play it again, SAM. Science. 2015 Jan 23;347(6220):370–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bunge HP, Grand SP. Mesozoic plate-motion history below the northeast Pacific Ocean from seismic images of the subducted Farallon slab. Nature. 2000 May 18;405(6784):337–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flower TP, Gribble M, Ridley AR. Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird. Science. 2014 May 2;344(6183):513–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yancheva G, Nowaczyk NR, Mingram J, Dulski P, Schettler G, Negendank JFW, et al. Influence of the intertropical convergence zone on the East Asian monsoon. Nature. 2007 Jan 4;445(7123):74–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McFedries P. Twitter Tips, Tricks, and Tweets. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
El Saddik A. Haptics Technologies: Bringing Touch to Multimedia. Orozco M, Eid M, Cha J, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XVI, 220 p. (Springer Series on Touch and Haptic Systems).
A chapter in an edited book
Tiwari A. Combining Equational Reasoning. In: Ghilardi S, Sebastiani R, editors. Frontiers of Combining Systems: 7th International Symposium, FroCoS 2009, Trento, Italy, September 16-18, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 68–83. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung India.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. You Can Now Officially Own Resources Extracted From Asteroids [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Cooperative Program Needs Greater Oversight to Ensure Goals Are Met. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jul. Report No.: GAO-03-775.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales RA. Health care team effectiveness: The relationship between team task interdependence and group emotional competence [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Southall A, Baker AL. Bronx Killing Leaves Only the Police in the Dark. New York Times. 2016 Dec 15;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLung India
AbbreviationLung India
ISSN (print)0970-2113
ISSN (online)0974-598X
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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