How to format your references using the Lung India citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung India. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bocquet-Appel JP. When the world’s population took off: the springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition. Science. 2011 Jul 29;333(6042):560–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wulder MA, Coops NC. Satellites: Make Earth observations open access. Nature. 2014 Sep 4;513(7516):30–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merritt JM, Bondybey VE, Heaven MC. Beryllium dimer--caught in the act of bonding. Science. 2009 Jun 19;324(5934):1548–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bastien GJ, Schepens B, Willems PA, Heglund NC. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters. Science. 2005 Jun 17;308(5729):1755.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pines JM, Carpenter CR, Raja AS, Schuur JD. Evidence-Based Emergency Care. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Rhodes J. Boolean Representations of Simplicial Complexes and Matroids. Silva PV, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 173 p. 36 illus. (Springer Monographs in Mathematics).
A chapter in an edited book
Maus H, Holz H, Bernardi A, Rostanin O. Leveraging Passive Paper Piles to Active Objects in Personal Knowledge Spaces. In: Althoff KD, Dengel A, Bergmann R, Nick M, Roth-Berghofer T, editors. Professional Knowledge Management: Third Biennial Conference, WM 2005, Kaiserslautern, Germany, April 10-13, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 50–9. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung India.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Third Largest Dwarf Planet Has A Moon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Still Needs To Clarify Policies for Performing Research and Development for Other Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Apr. Report No.: PSAD-80-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullin Piette AJ. Dialogic encounters among health care providers in pediatric critical care: A qualitative, collective case study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Crosstown Rivalry: Mothers Inc. New York Times. 1999 May 9;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLung India
AbbreviationLung India
ISSN (print)0970-2113
ISSN (online)0974-598X
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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