How to format your references using the Long Range Planning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Long Range Planning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gandy, S., 2011. Perspective: prevention is better than cure. Nature 475, S15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Testa, G., Harris, J., 2004. Genetics. Ethical aspects of ES cell-derived gametes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305, 1719.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choi, C.H., Hiromura, M., Usheva, A., 2003. Transcription factor IIB acetylates itself to regulate transcription. Nature 424, 965–969.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schuster, M., Duringer, P., Ghienne, J.-F., Vignaud, P., Mackaye, H.T., Likius, A., Brunet, M., 2006. The age of the Sahara desert. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, 821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lakshminarayana, B., 2007. Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Worth, N., Dwyer, C. (Eds.), 2016. Identities and Subjectivities, Geographies of Children and Young People. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Grimson, R., 2010. An Efficient Algorithm for the Sign Condition Problem in the Semi-algebraic Context, in: Mourrain, B., Schaefer, S., Xu, G. (Eds.), Advances in Geometric Modeling and Processing: 6th International Conference, GMP 2010, Castro Urdiales, Spain, June 16-18, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Long Range Planning.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. The Science Behind How We Became Human [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: The District of Columbia Cannot Reliably Track Y2K Costs (No. T-AIMD-99-298). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, T., 2012. The evolution of transformative communication patterns in 1-to-1 computing classrooms (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. On Final Day, Tears and Jeers. New York Times B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gandy, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Testa and Harris, 2004; Gandy, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Testa and Harris, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Schuster et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLong Range Planning
AbbreviationLong Range Plann.
ISSN (print)0024-6301
ScopeStrategy and Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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