How to format your references using the Long Range Planning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Long Range Planning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter, M., 2001. Archaeology. Did plaster hold Neolithic society together? Science (New York, N.Y.) 294, 2278–2281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tumer, E.C., Brainard, M.S., 2007. Performance variability enables adaptive plasticity of “crystallized” adult birdsong. Nature 450, 1240–1244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norouzzadeh, P., Myles, C.W., Vashaee, D., 2014. Prediction of giant thermoelectric power factor in type-VIII clathrate Si46. Scientific Reports 4, 7028.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiang, T., Wang, L.-R., Ma, L., Han, Z.-Y., Wang, R., Cheng, C., Xia, Y., Qin, H., Zhao, C.-S., 2014. From commodity polymers to functional polymers. Scientific Reports 4, 4604.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker, H.K., Martin, G.S., 2011. Capital Structure and Corporate Financing Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Detyniecki, M., García-Serrano, A., Nürnberger, A., Stober, S. (Eds.), 2013. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval. Large-Scale Multimedia Retrieval and Evaluation: 9th International Workshop, AMR 2011, Barcelona, Spain, July 18-19, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lucas, J.C., Schroeder, D., Arnason, G., Andanda, P., Kimani, J., Fournier, V., Krishnamurthy, M., 2013. Donating Human Samples: Who Benefits? Cases from Iceland, Kenya and Indonesia, in: Schroeder, D., Cook Lucas, J. (Eds.), Benefit Sharing: From Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 95–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Long Range Planning.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2015. Leading Theory About How Consciousness Works May Be Wrong [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. FAA Procurement: Competition for Major Data-Processing Project Was Unjustifiably Limited (No. IMTEC-90-71). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mihalas, S.T., 2008. Positive protective factors as moderators in the relationship between relational victimization and depression in minority adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Like His Style or Not, Ryan Is a Keeper. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Balter, 2001; Tumer and Brainard, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tumer and Brainard, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLong Range Planning
AbbreviationLong Range Plann.
ISSN (print)0024-6301
ScopeStrategy and Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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