How to format your references using the Long Range Planning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Long Range Planning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D., 2002. Satellite set to keep track of whales. Nature 415, 354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sesma, A., Osbourn, A.E., 2004. The rice leaf blast pathogen undergoes developmental processes typical of root-infecting fungi. Nature 431, 582–586.
A journal article with 3 authors
Attri, A.K., Kumar, U., Jain, V.K., 2001. Formation of ozone by fireworks. Nature 411, 1015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schafer, Z.T., Grassian, A.R., Song, L., Jiang, Z., Gerhart-Hines, Z., Irie, H.Y., Gao, S., Puigserver, P., Brugge, J.S., 2009. Antioxidant and oncogene rescue of metabolic defects caused by loss of matrix attachment. Nature 461, 109–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levin, M.A., Kalal, T.T., 2005. Improving Product Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hameurlain, A., Küng, J., Wagner, R., Böhm, C., Eder, J., Plant, C. (Eds.), 2011. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems IV: Special Issue on Database Systems for Biomedical Applications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Musselin, C., 2005. Change or Continuity in Higher Education Governance?, in: Bleiklie, I., Henkel, M. (Eds.), Governing Knowledge: A Study of Continuity and Change in Higher Education A Festschrift in Honour of Maurice Kogan, Higher Education Dynamics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Long Range Planning.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Does Publication Bias Make Antidepressants Seem More Effective At Treating Anxiety Than They Really Are? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Welfare to Work: JOBS Automated Systems Do Not Focus on Program’s Employment Objective (No. AIMD-94-44). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marquez, R.A., 2009. Examining coping skills used to deal with daily stressors of law enforcement (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. In Showdown, Sure Hands And Shaky Ones. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2002; Sesma and Osbourn, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sesma and Osbourn, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Schafer et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLong Range Planning
AbbreviationLong Range Plann.
ISSN (print)0024-6301
ScopeStrategy and Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles