How to format your references using the LITHOS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LITHOS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2004. Home and away. Nature 432, 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Page, J., Ware, M., 2015. Perspective: Close the knowledge gap. Nature 525, S9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sleutels, F., Zwart, R., Barlow, D.P., 2002. The non-coding Air RNA is required for silencing autosomal imprinted genes. Nature 415, 810–813.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rein, M., Favrod, V.D., Hou, C., Khudiyev, T., Stolyarov, A., Cox, J., Chung, C.-C., Chhav, C., Ellis, M., Joannopoulos, J., Fink, Y., 2018. Diode fibres for fabric-based optical communications. Nature 560, 214–218.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maier, H., 2015. Chemiker im „Dritten Reich“. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Kessel, D., Ray, C. (Eds.), 2009. Transcatheter Embolization and Therapy, Techniques in Interventional Radiology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Finiukova, V.O., Stolyar, A.M., 2011. Asymptotic Integration of One Narrow Plate Problem, in: Altenbach, H., Eremeyev, V.A. (Eds.), Shell-like Structures: Non-Classical Theories and Applications, Advanced Structured Materials. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LITHOS.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Researchers Reveal Nanoscale Images Of The Brain [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. DOD Space Systems: Additional Knowledge Would Better Support Decisions about Disaggregating Large Satellites (No. GAO-15-7). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beyer, P.D., 2010. Authentic Leadership in-extremis: A study of combat leadership (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., 2017. In Officers’ 4-Wheeled ‘Home,’ A Shattered Sense of Security. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Page and Ware, 2015; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Page and Ware, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Rein et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleLITHOS
ISSN (print)0024-4937
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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