How to format your references using the LITHOS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LITHOS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mulder, B., 2008. Developmental biology. On growth and force. Science 322, 1643–1644.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gomes, C.P., Selman, B., 2002. Computer science. Satisfied with physics. Science 297, 784–785.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brohawn, S.G., del Mármol, J., MacKinnon, R., 2012. Crystal structure of the human K2P TRAAK, a lipid- and mechano-sensitive K+ ion channel. Science 335, 436–441.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kato, Y., Myers, R.C., Driscoll, D.C., Gossard, A.C., Levy, J., Awschalom, D.D., 2003. Gigahertz electron spin manipulation using voltage-controlled g-tensor modulation. Science 299, 1201–1204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherian, A., 2015. Energy and Global Climate Change. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lassenius, C., Smolander, K. (Eds.), 2014. Software Business. Towards Continuous Value Delivery: 5th International Conference, ICSOB 2014, Paphos, Cyprus, June 16-18, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Özkaya, N., Nordin, M., Goldsheyder, D., Leger, D., 2012. Applications of Statics to Biomechanics, in: Nordin, M., Goldsheyder, D., Leger, D. (Eds.), Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Equilibrium, Motion, and Deformation. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 61–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LITHOS.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2015. Practically Unknown STI Could Have Infected Huge Numbers Of People Without Them Knowing Anything About It [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Faces Challenges in Improving Its Financial Condition (No. T-RCED-00-30). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanigan, L.G., 2012. Effects of Two Cancer Genes, HTLV-1 Tax and E-Cadherin, on Cancer Development and Progression (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Caba, S., 2015. Free Stay in Luxury! (Just Feed the Fish). New York Times TR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mulder, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Gomes and Selman, 2002; Mulder, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gomes and Selman, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kato et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLITHOS
ISSN (print)0024-4937
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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