How to format your references using the LITHOS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LITHOS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosswog, S., 2004. Astronomy. Short gamma-ray bursts. Science 303, 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giardina, C.P., Ryan, M.G., 2000. Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature 404, 858–861.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakravarty, S., Kee, H.-Y., Völker, K., 2004. An explanation for a universality of transition temperatures in families of copper oxide superconductors. Nature 428, 53–55.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong, X.-P., Donoghue, P.C.J., Cheng, H., Liu, J.-B., 2004. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China. Nature 427, 237–240.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent, O., Petit, J.-P., Gurle, D., 2005. Beyond VoIP Protocols. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Herout, A., 2013. Real-Time Detection of Lines and Grids: By PClines and Other Approaches, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Golovach, P.A., Paulusma, D., Song, J., 2012. Closing Complexity Gaps for Coloring Problems on H-Free Graphs, in: Chao, K.-M., Hsu, T.-S., Lee, D.-T. (Eds.), Algorithms and Computation: 23rd International Symposium, ISAAC 2012, Taipei, Taiwan, December 19-21, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 14–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LITHOS.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Successful Spider Cities Require Just the Right Mix of Females [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. School District Claim to Department of Air Force (No. B-193864). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chotkevys, D.L., 2009. A grounded theory study to explore how nurses overcome barriers to spiritual care (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M., 2017. ‘Moulin Rouge’ Musical Will Debut in Boston. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rosswog, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Giardina and Ryan, 2000; Rosswog, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giardina and Ryan, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLITHOS
ISSN (print)0024-4937
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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