How to format your references using the LITHOS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LITHOS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bhutta, Z.A., 2014. Infectious disease: Polio eradication hinges on child health in Pakistan. Nature 511, 285–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vermot, J., Pourquié, O., 2005. Retinoic acid coordinates somitogenesis and left-right patterning in vertebrate embryos. Nature 435, 215–220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polley, D.B., Kvasnák, E., Frostig, R.D., 2004. Naturalistic experience transforms sensory maps in the adult cortex of caged animals. Nature 429, 67–71.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Samanta, M.P., Tongprasit, W., Istrail, S., Cameron, R.A., Tu, Q., Davidson, E.H., Stolc, V., 2006. The transcriptome of the sea urchin embryo. Science 314, 960–962.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Ruyet, D., Pischella, M., 2015. Digital Communications 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schramm-Klein, H., Foscht, T., Morschett, D., Rudolph, T., Schnedlitz, P., Swoboda, B. (Eds.), 2014. European Retail Research: 2013, Volume 27, Issue I, European Retail Research. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Moussaoui, C., Abbou, R., Loiseau, J.J., 2014. Controller Design for a Class of Delayed and Constrained Systems: Application to Supply Chains, in: Seuret, A., Özbay, H., Bonnet, C., Mounier, H. (Eds.), Low-Complexity Controllers for Time-Delay Systems, Advances in Delays and Dynamics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LITHOS.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Vitamin Supplement Prevents Noise-Induced Hearing Loss In Mice [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Budgetary Implications of IRS’ Tax System Modernization and Automated Examination System Efforts (No. T-IMTEC-89-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham, A.T., 2012. Factorization of polynomials modulo a prime (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2016. Ghosts of Elections Past. New York Times C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bhutta, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bhutta, 2014; Vermot and Pourquié, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vermot and Pourquié, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Samanta et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLITHOS
ISSN (print)0024-4937
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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