How to format your references using the LITHOS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LITHOS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klug, A., 2001. Structural biology. A marvellous machine for making messages. Science 292, 1844–1846.
A journal article with 2 authors
Löytynoja, A., Goldman, N., 2009. Evolution. Uniting alignments and trees. Science 324, 1528–1529.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn, E.W., Aknin, L.B., Norton, M.I., 2008. Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science 319, 1687–1688.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Petri, G., Expert, P., Jensen, H.J., Polak, J.W., 2013. Entangled communities and spatial synchronization lead to criticality in urban traffic. Sci. Rep. 3, 1798.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wong, B.P., Mittal, A., Cao, Y., Starr, G., 2005. Nano-CMOS Circuit and Physical Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Caspard, N., 2007. Ensembles ordonnés finis : concepts, résultats et usages, Mathématiques amp; Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sadowski, T., 2009. Non-Symmetric Thermal Shock In Ceramic Matrix Composite (Cmc) Materials, in: Borst, R. de, Sadowski, T. (Eds.), Lecture Notes on Composite Materials: Current Topics and Achievements, Solid Mechanics And Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 99–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LITHOS.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Teenage Quasar Tries to Hide in its Galactic Room [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Highway Trust Fund: Financial Condition as of September 30, 1997 (No. RCED-98-171R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Neal, L., 2016. What’s in Your Toolbox?: Examining Tool Choices at Two Middle and Late Woodland-Period Sites on Florida’s Central Gulf Coast (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017. Netflix Signs New Deal With Rhimes. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klug, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Klug, 2001; Löytynoja and Goldman, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Löytynoja and Goldman, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Petri et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLITHOS
ISSN (print)0024-4937
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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