How to format your references using the LITHOS citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LITHOS. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lorenz, R., 2003. Computational mathematics. Full steam ahead-probably. Science 299, 837–838.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tosatti, E., Prestipino, S., 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: Weird Gold Nanowires. Science 289, 561–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, D.P., Das, S., Watts, A.B., 2006. Earthquake rupture stalled by a subducting fracture zone. Science 312, 1203–1205.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C.M., Visser, M.E., 2006. Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature 441, 81–83.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saint-Dizier, P., 2014. Musical Rhetoric. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lin, C.Y.-Y., 2013. National Intellectual Capital and the Financial Crisis in Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, SpringerBriefs in Economics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Burriss, E.T., Alici, G., Spinks, G.M., McGovern, S., 2011. Modelling and Performance Enhancement of a Linear Actuation Mechanism Using Conducting Polymers, in: Cetto, J.A., Filipe, J., Ferrier, J.-L. (Eds.), Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics: Revised and Selected Papers from the International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics 2009, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LITHOS.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. Chicken Study Shows That Evolution Can Happen Quickly [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Bilingual Education: Four Overlapping Programs Could Be Consolidated (No. GAO-01-657). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, T., 2013. Talking to Strangers: Chinese Youth and Social Media (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: In His Own Words; On TV, a Very Public Education for Ross Perot. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lorenz, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lorenz, 2003; Tosatti and Prestipino, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tosatti and Prestipino, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Both et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLITHOS
ISSN (print)0024-4937
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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