How to format your references using the Lethaia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lethaia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buffett, B.A. 2010: Geophysics. The enigmatic inner core. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328, 982–983.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cassidy, L.D. and Narita, M. 2015: CELL BIOLOGY. GATA get a hold on senescence. Science (New York, N.Y.) 349, 1448–1449.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chisari, F.V., Mason, W.S. and Seeger, C. 2014: Virology. Comment on ‘Specific and nonhepatotoxic degradation of nuclear hepatitis B virus cccDNA’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344, 1237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raghu, S., Anderson, R.C., Daehler, C.C., Davis, A.S., Wiedenmann, R.N., Simberloff, D. and Mack, R.N. 2006: Ecology. Adding biofuels to the invasive species fire? Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, 1742.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen, J. 2004: Chemiereaktoren. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, .
An edited book
Wang, Y. 2016: Optimal Trajectory Planning and Train Scheduling for Urban Rail Transit Systems. In Ning, B., van den Boom, T., De Schutter, B. (eds.) Advances in Industrial Control. Springer International Publishing, Cham, .
A chapter in an edited book
Leong, W. and Wang, D.-A. 2014: Engineering Biomaterials for Anchorage-Dependent and Non-anchorage-Dependent Therapeutic Cell Delivery in Translational Medicine. In Cai, W. (ed.), Engineering in Translational Medicine, 103–131. Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lethaia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015: Battery Costs Drop Even Faster As Electric Car Sales Continue To Rise. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005: Transportation Security Administration: Clear Policies and Oversight Needed for Designation of Sensitive Security Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lundahl Philpot, E. 2013: Social media adoption and use among information technology professionals and implications for leadership.Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZpp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992: A Life of Advantage, Enhanced by the Will to Excel. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buffett 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Buffett 2010; Cassidy & Narita 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cassidy & Narita 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Raghu et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLethaia
ISSN (print)0024-1164
ISSN (online)1502-3931
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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