How to format your references using the Lethaia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lethaia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu, X. 2010: Journal club. A palaeontologist considers the evolution of birds’ mechanism of breathing. Nature 464, 961.
A journal article with 2 authors
Both, C. and Visser, M.E. 2001: Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird. Nature 411, 296–298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jin, F.-F., Boucharel, J. and Lin, I.-I. 2014: Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat. Nature 516, 82–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kagey, M.H., Newman, J.J., Bilodeau, S., Zhan, Y., Orlando, D.A., van Berkum, N.L., Ebmeier, C.C., Goossens, J., Rahl, P.B., Levine, S.S., Taatjes, D.J., Dekker, J. and Young, R.A. 2010: Mediator and cohesin connect gene expression and chromatin architecture. Nature 467, 430–435.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staebler, P. 2017: Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, .
An edited book
Pohl, V. 2010: Advanced Topics in System and Signal Theory: A Mathematical Approach. In Boche, H. (ed.) Foundations in Signal Processing, Communications and Networking. Vol. 4. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, .
A chapter in an edited book
Hirsch, F., Profeta, C., Roynette, B. and Yor, M. 2011: The Sato Process Method. In Profeta, C., Roynette, B., Yor, M. (eds.), Peacocks and Associated Martingales, with Explicit Constructions, 181–221. Springer, Milano.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lethaia.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015: Scientists Watch As Wasps Diverge To Become Separate Species. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012: Highway Projects: Survey of State Departments of Transportation (GAO-12-637SP, June 2012), an E-supplement to GAO-12-593. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim, K. 2017: An Inquiry of How Art Education Policies are Reflected in Art Teacher Preparation: Examining the Standards for Visual Arts and Art Teacher Certification.Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, INpp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barneby, M.R. and Kelly, J. 1997: A Pension Gap for Women. New York Times, 312.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xu 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Both & Visser 2001; Xu 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Both & Visser 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kagey et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleLethaia
ISSN (print)0024-1164
ISSN (online)1502-3931
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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