How to format your references using the Lethaia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lethaia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow, A.R. 2015: CLIMATE CHANGE. Extreme weather, made by us? Science (New York, N.Y.) 349, 1444–1445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hasty, P. & Vijg, J. 2002: Aging. Genomic priorities in aging. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, 1250–1251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Costello, M.J., May, R.M. & Stork, N.E. 2013: Can we name Earth’s species before they go extinct? Science (New York, N.Y.) 339, 413–416.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rajagopal, J., Anderson, W.J., Kume, S., Martinez, O.I. & Melton, D.A. 2003: Insulin staining of ES cell progeny from insulin uptake. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J.C. & Naeim, F. 2012: Basic Structural Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2015: Synchrotron Radiation: Basics, Methods and Applications. Mobilio, S., Boscherini, F., Meneghini, C. (Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Boucheneb, H. & Imine, A. 2009: On Model-Checking Optimistic Replication Algorithms, 73–89. In: Lee, D., Lopes, A., Poetzsch-Heffter, A. (Eds.), Formal Techniques for Distributed Systems: Joint 11th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FMOODS 2009 and 29th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FORTE 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lethaia.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016: What Our Ancestors’ Third Eye Reveals About The Evolution Of Mammals To Warm Blood. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008: Bureau of Indian Education Schools: Improving Interior’s Assistance Would Help Some Tribal Groups Implement Academic Accountability Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moon, M.M. 2009: The needs of Korean-American and Korean families of children with disabilities.: Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC: pp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D. & Haberman, M. 2017: Friend Suggests Trump May Fire Special Counsel. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solow 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hasty & Vijg 2002; Solow 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hasty & Vijg 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Rajagopal et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLethaia
ISSN (print)0024-1164
ISSN (online)1502-3931
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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