How to format your references using the Lethaia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lethaia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyer, P. 2008: Being human: Religion: bound to believe? Nature 455, 1038–1039.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ali, J.R. and Huber, M. 2010: Mammalian biodiversity on Madagascar controlled by ocean currents. Nature 463, 653–656.
A journal article with 3 authors
Worthylake, D.K., Rossman, K.L. and Sondek, J. 2000: Crystal structure of Rac1 in complex with the guanine nucleotide exchange region of Tiam1. Nature 408, 682–688.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Benassi, A., Marioni, M.A., Passerone, D. and Hug, H.J. 2014: Role of interface coupling inhomogeneity in domain evolution in exchange bias. Scientific reports 4, 4508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plumb, J.A. and Hanson, L.A. 2010: Health Maintenance and Principal Microbial Diseases of Cultured Fishes. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, .
An edited book
2014: Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data. In Westin, C.-F., Vilanova, A., Burgeth, B. (eds.) Mathematics and Visualization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, .
A chapter in an edited book
Manzon, M. 2014: Comparing Places. In Bray, M., Adamson, B., Mason, M. (eds.), Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods, 97–137. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lethaia.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016: A Global Dust Storm Might Cover Mars In A Matter Of Weeks. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008: Traffic Safety: Grants Generally Address Key Safety Issues, Despite State Eligibility and Management Difficulties. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medlej, M. 2017: Assessing the Probability of Prototyping Success in Systems Acquisitions (APOPS).Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DCpp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo, M. and Rosenberg, M. 2017: Sessions May Be Asked About Reports of Meeting. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyer 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Boyer 2008; Ali & Huber 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ali & Huber 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Benassi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLethaia
ISSN (print)0024-1164
ISSN (online)1502-3931
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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