How to format your references using the Lethaia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lethaia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunbar, R. 2003: Psychology. Evolution of the social brain. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 1160–1161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fairn, G.D. and Grinstein, S. 2008: Cell biology. A one-sided signal. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320, 458–460.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffith, S., Goldwater, D. and Jacobson, J.M. 2005: Robotics: self-replication from random parts. Nature 437, 636.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Götz, J., Chen, F., van Dorpe, J. and Nitsch, R.M. 2001: Formation of neurofibrillary tangles in P301l tau transgenic mice induced by Abeta 42 fibrils. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293, 1491–1495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Omura, Y., Mallik, A. and Matsuo, N. 2016: MOS Devices for Low-Voltage and Low-Energy Applications. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, .
An edited book
2007: Endoscopic Extraperitoneal Radical Prostatectomy. In Stolzenburg, J.-U., Gettman, M. T., Liatsikos, E. N. (eds.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, .
A chapter in an edited book
Gatti, C., Orlando, A.M., Monza, E. and Lo Presti, L. 2016: Exploring Chemistry Through the Source Function for the Electron and the Electron Spin Densities. In Chauvin, R., Lepetit, C., Silvi, B., Alikhani, E. (eds.), Applications of Topological Methods in Molecular Chemistry, 101–129. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lethaia.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014: New Estimate Suggests 100 Million Planets In Our Galaxy Capable Of Sustaining Complex Life. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988: Aviation Security: Improved Controls Needed To Prevent Unauthorized Access at Key Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, Y. 2013: Crossroads A World War II story.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CApp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. 2017: Carson McCullers at 100. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dunbar 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dunbar 2003; Fairn & Grinstein 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fairn & Grinstein 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Götz et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLethaia
ISSN (print)0024-1164
ISSN (online)1502-3931
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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