How to format your references using the Lethaia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lethaia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakravarti, A. 2008: Obituary: Victor Almon McKusick (1921-2008). Nature 455, 46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, R.N. and Gibson, S.A. 2000: Transient high temperatures in mantle plume heads inferred from magnesian olivines in Phanerozoic picrites. Nature 407, 502–506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan, F., Depew, R. and Soltis-Muth, C. 2014: Ecosystem regime change inferred from the distribution of trace metals in Lake Erie sediments. Scientific reports 4, 7265.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Religa, T.L., Markson, J.S., Mayor, U., Freund, S.M.V. and Fersht, A.R. 2005: Solution structure of a protein denatured state and folding intermediate. Nature 437, 1053–1056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wrobel, G.M. and Neil, E. 2009: International Advances in Adoption Research for Practice. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, .
An edited book
2013: Mitochondrial Disorders Caused by Nuclear Genes. In Wong, L.-J. C. (ed.) Springer, New York, NY, .
A chapter in an edited book
Gardiner, S.M. 2013: Socrates on the Impossibility of a Reasonable Politics. In Anagnostopoulos, G., Miller, F. D., Jr. (eds.), Reason and Analysis in Ancient Greek Philosophy: Essays in Honor of David Keyt, 67–90. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lethaia.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016: More Bright Galaxies Discovered In The Early Universe. IFLScience. Downloaded from on 30 October 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998: Aviation Acquisition: FAA Has a Structured Investment Management Approach, but Weaknesses Limit Its Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holloway, L.R. 2013: Synthesis and investigation of novel dinitrosyl-Iron complexes of chelated Bis-phosphine ligands: Potential nitric oxide delivery compounds.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CApp.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bulkeley, K. 2013: Data-Mining Our Dreams. New York Times, SR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chakravarti 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson & Gibson 2000; Chakravarti 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson & Gibson 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Religa et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLethaia
ISSN (print)0024-1164
ISSN (online)1502-3931
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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