How to format your references using the Food Structure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Structure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
LeBlanc, L. J. (2015). Quantum physics: Two-atom bunching. Nature, 520(7545), 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nilsson, J., & Payne, D. N. (2011). Physics. High-power fiber lasers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6032), 921–922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reyes, N., Ginter, C., & Boudker, O. (2009). Transport mechanism of a bacterial homologue of glutamate transporters. Nature, 462(7275), 880–885.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kukushkin, I. V., Smet, J. H., Scarola, V. W., Umansky, V., & von Klitzing, K. (2009). Dispersion of the excitations of fractional quantum Hall States. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5930), 1044–1047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyshevski, S. E. (2005). Engineering and Scientific Computations Using MATLAB®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tobin, K., & Shady, A. (Eds.). (2014). Transforming Urban Education: Urban Teachers and Students Working Collaboratively. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Sroufe, R. (2013). Quality Assurance and Consumer Electronics Recycling. In Y. Nikolaidis (Ed.), Quality Management in Reverse Logistics: A Broad Look on Quality Issues and Their Interaction with Closed-Loop Supply Chains (pp. 73–94). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Structure.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, July 10). Seabirds Navigate the Open Ocean Using Scent Maps. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Vocational Education: Opportunity to Prepare for the Future (HRD-89-55). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giles, C. L. (2015). Faculty mentoring of undergraduate students: A qualitative phenomenological study [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, October 11). An Unconventional Witness. New York Times, A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (LeBlanc, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (LeBlanc, 2015; Nilsson & Payne, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nilsson & Payne, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Reyes et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kukushkin et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Structure
ISSN (print)2213-3291
ScopeFood Science
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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