How to format your references using the Food Structure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Structure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hohenheim, T. (2000). A leap of faith. Nature, 407(6807), 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saunders, M. A., & Lea, A. S. (2005). Seasonal prediction of hurricane activity reaching the coast of the United States. Nature, 434(7036), 1005–1008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nam, J.-M., Thaxton, C. S., & Mirkin, C. A. (2003). Nanoparticle-based bio-bar codes for the ultrasensitive detection of proteins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5641), 1884–1886.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, K., Gu, R., Wang, L., Xiao, P., Chen, Y.-H., Liang, J., … Fu, X. (2014). Voluntary pressing and releasing actions induce different senses of time: evidence from event-related brain responses. Scientific Reports, 4, 6047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blundell, A., Harrison, R., & Turney, B. (2010). The Essential Guide to Becoming a Doctor. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Gamage, D. T. (Ed.). (2006). Professional Development for Leaders and Managers of Self-Governing Schools. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cunningham, A. M., Rush, P. S., & Matkowskyj, K. A. (2016). Pathologic Features of Primary Pancreatic Malignancies. In D. Bentrem & A. B. Benson (Eds.), Gastrointestinal Malignancies (pp. 77–100). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Structure.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 12). Pair Of Infant Planets Spotted Forming Around A Young Star. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Screening Partnership Program: TSA Should Issue More Guidance to Airports and Monitor Private versus Federal Screener Performance (No. GAO-13-208). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakano, A. M. (2012). Community college swirlers and the transfer function (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
La Gorce, T. (2012, July 1). Fire Up the Pit: My Brisket Can Burn Yours. New York Times, p. NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (von Hohenheim, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Saunders & Lea, 2005; von Hohenheim, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Saunders & Lea, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Nam, Thaxton, & Mirkin, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Structure
ISSN (print)2213-3291
ScopeFood Science
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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