How to format your references using the Food Structure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Structure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2009). State of energy. Nature, 458(7242), 1208–1209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smethurst, D. P., & Williams, H. C. (2001). Power laws. Are hospital waiting lists self-regulating? Nature, 410(6829), 652–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Childs, A. M., Gosset, D., & Webb, Z. (2013). Universal computation by multiparticle quantum walk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6121), 791–794.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pandit, P. S., Bunn, D. A., Pande, S. A., & Aly, S. S. (2013). Modeling highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission in wild birds and poultry in West Bengal, India. Scientific Reports, 3, 2175.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carter, K. B. (2014). Actionable Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kelemen, A., Abraham, A., & Liang, Y. (Eds.). (2008). Computational Intelligence in Medical Informatics (Vol. 85). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Miclaus, G. D., & Ples, H. (2014). Abdominal Angiography. In H. Ples (Ed.), Atlas of CT Angiography: Normal and Pathologic Findings (pp. 131–157). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Structure.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, September 23). Earth’s Oxygen Levels Continue To Decline. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Social Research and Development of Limited Use to National Policymakers (HRD-77-34). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinckley, M. (2014). Socioecological factors that affect adolescent nervousness and depression [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz, J. (2013, October 15). A State Inquiry Is Said To Target Job Agencies. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2009; Smethurst & Williams, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smethurst & Williams, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Childs et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pandit et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Structure
ISSN (print)2213-3291
ScopeFood Science
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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