How to format your references using the Food Structure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Structure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodes, G. (2013). Applied physics. Perovskite-based solar cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6156), 317–318.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schafer, R. J., & Moore, T. (2011). Selective attention from voluntary control of neurons in prefrontal cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1568–1571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morgan, A. D., Gandon, S., & Buckling, A. (2005). The effect of migration on local adaptation in a coevolving host-parasite system. Nature, 437(7056), 253–256.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Andrus, C. F. T., Crowe, D. E., Sandweiss, D. H., Reitz, E. J., & Romanek, C. S. (2002). Otolith delta 18O record of mid-Holocene sea surface temperatures in Peru. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5559), 1508–1511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald, I. W. (2010). Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fomin, F. V., Freivalds, R., Kwiatkowska, M., & Peleg, D. (Eds.). (2013). Automata, Languages, and Programming: 40th International Colloquium, ICALP 2013, Riga, Latvia, July 8-12, 2013, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 7965). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tiwari, R., & Herstatt, C. (2014). Growing Demand for Affordable Solutions. In C. Herstatt (Ed.), Aiming Big with Small Cars: Emergence of a Lead Market in India (pp. 61–87). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Structure.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, August 20). Female Fish Genital Openings Are Smaller When There Are Lots Of Predators Around. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Space Station: NASA Efforts To Establish a Design-To-Life-Cycle Cost Process (NSIAD-88-147). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, E. D. (2015). A mental health community outreach and education program for Nigerian immigrants: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2002, July 16). Russian Writer, Facing Charges, Warns Free Expression Is at Risk. New York Times, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodes, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hodes, 2013; Schafer & Moore, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schafer & Moore, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Morgan et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Andrus et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Structure
ISSN (print)2213-3291
ScopeFood Science
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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