How to format your references using the Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Holmes, Obituary: Alan Graham MacDiarmid (1927-2007), Nature. 446 (2007) 390.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Folkman, R. Kalluri, Cancer without disease, Nature. 427 (2004) 787.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Janetopoulos, T. Jin, P. Devreotes, Receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins in living cells, Science. 291 (2001) 2408–2411.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.J. Cornelissen, J.J. Donners, R. de Gelder, W.S. Graswinckel, G.A. Metselaar, A.E. Rowan, N.A. Sommerdijk, R.J. Nolte, beta -Helical polymers from isocyanopeptides, Science. 293 (2001) 676–680.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Burk, Lebesgue Measure and Integration, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1997.
An edited book
J. Bajo, K. Hallenborg, P. Pawlewski, V. Botti, N. Sánchez-Pi, N.D. Duque Méndez, F. Lopes, V. Julian, eds., Highlights of Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Sustainability - The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2015, Salamanca, Spain, June 3-4, 2015. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Dorn, A. Breda, O. Norberto de Souza, A Hybrid Method for the Protein Structure Prediction Problem, in: A.L.C. Bazzan, M. Craven, N.F. Martins (Eds.), Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Third Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2008, Santo André, Brazil, August 28-30, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Legal Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Trailer For New Stephen Hawking Biopic Will Make You Cry, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Trends in Federal and State Capital Investment in Highways, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Martinez, Intervention workshops for members of multidisciplinary teams on hoarding: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
J. Koblin, Request to Alter Opening Ceremony Collides With Tradition, New York Times. (2016) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLegal Medicine
AbbreviationLeg. Med. (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)1344-6223
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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