How to format your references using the Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Sargent, Obituary: Willis E. Lamb Jr (1913-2008), Nature. 453 (2008) 867.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.A. Khajetoorians, J. Wiebe, Physics. Hitting the limit of magnetic anisotropy, Science. 344 (2014) 976–977.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.L. Dangl, D.M. Horvath, B.J. Staskawicz, Pivoting the plant immune system from dissection to deployment, Science. 341 (2013) 746–751.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Takasugi, T. Tomita, I. Hayashi, M. Tsuruoka, M. Niimura, Y. Takahashi, G. Thinakaran, T. Iwatsubo, The role of presenilin cofactors in the gamma-secretase complex, Nature. 422 (2003) 438–441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Weiss, Getting Started in Consulting, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
G.L. Phillips, ed., Antibody-Drug Conjugates and Immunotoxins: From Pre-Clinical Development to Therapeutic Applications, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Shi, Structural Biology of Programmed Cell Death, in: Z. Dong, X.-M. Yin (Eds.), Essentials of Apoptosis: A Guide for Basic and Clinical Research, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2009: pp. 95–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Legal Medicine.

Blog post
D. Andrew, A Parasitic Infection Called Crypto Is On The Rise In US Swimming Pools, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, District of Columbia: Chronology of Events Related to the Metropolitan Police Use of $15 Million Appropriation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Johnson, Grounding theatricality in reality: The creation of the role of Suzie in “Current Nobody,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Schembari, Factory Masterpieces, New York Times. (2017) TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLegal Medicine
AbbreviationLeg. Med. (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)1344-6223
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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