How to format your references using the Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.U. Clark, Climate change. Ice sheets in transition, Science. 337 (2012) 656–658.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Pandey, M. Mann, Proteomics to study genes and genomes, Nature. 405 (2000) 837–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.W. Li, J. Ciston, M.W. Kanan, Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper, Nature. 508 (2014) 504–507.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.P. van Schaik, M. Ancrenaz, G. Borgen, B. Galdikas, C.D. Knott, I. Singleton, A. Suzuki, S.S. Utami, M. Merrill, Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture, Science. 299 (2003) 102–105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.G. Speight, K. Singh, Environmental Management of Energy from Biofuels and Biofeedstocks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
A.A. Ashimov, Macroeconomic Analysis and Parametric Control of a National Economy, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Ackermann, H. Röglin, U. Schellbach, N. Schweer, Chapter 4. Analysis of Algorithms, in: M. Müller-Hannemann, S. Schirra (Eds.), Algorithm Engineering: Bridging the Gap between Algorithm Theory and Practice, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 127–193.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Legal Medicine.

Blog post
J. Davis, Actual Fukushima Radiation Levels May Have Been Four Times Lower Than Official Estimates, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Motor Carrier Safety: Improvements to Drug Testing Programs Could Better Identify Illegal Drug Users and Keep Them off the Road, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.R. Carver, CMO: Chief Marketing Officer or chief “marginalized” officer, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.A. Sbarbaro, Standard Morning Fare, on the Go, New York Times. (2017) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLegal Medicine
AbbreviationLeg. Med. (Tokyo)
ISSN (print)1344-6223
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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