How to format your references using the Learning and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baird, B. N. (2006). Comment on “Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5787), 615; author reply 615.
A journal article with 2 authors
True, H. L., & Lindquist, S. L. (2000). A yeast prion provides a mechanism for genetic variation and phenotypic diversity. Nature, 407(6803), 477–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eggleton, P. P., Dearborn, D. S. P., & Lattanzio, J. C. (2006). Deep mixing of 3He: reconciling Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5805), 1580–1583.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chothia, C., Gough, J., Vogel, C., & Teichmann, S. A. (2003). Evolution of the protein repertoire. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1701–1703.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girmscheid, G. (2013). Bauprozesse und Bauverfahren des Tunnelbaus. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Raś, Z. W., Tsumoto, S., & Zighed, D. (Eds.). (2008). Mining Complex Data: ECML/PKDD 2007 Third International Workshop, MCD 2007, Warsaw, Poland, September 17-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 4944). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y., Hong, J., Liu, W., Godo, L., Sierra, C., & Loughlin, M. (2013). Incorporating PGMs into a BDI Architecture. In G. Boella, E. Elkind, B. T. R. Savarimuthu, F. Dignum, & M. K. Purvis (Eds.), PRIMA 2013: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 16th International Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 1-6, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 54–69). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 21). Researchers Translate Ancient Egyptian Spellbook. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Homeland Security: OMB’s Temporary Cessation of Information Technology Funding for New Investments (GAO-03-186T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner, G. (2010). Falls among older adults 65 years and older [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik, J. F. (2016, September 22). The Next Hot Start-Up Benefit Could Be a 401(k). New York Times, B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baird, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Baird, 2006; True & Lindquist, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (True & Lindquist, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Eggleton et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chothia et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning and Individual Differences
AbbreviationLearn. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1041-6080
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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