How to format your references using the Learning and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruttimann, J. (2007). Cell mates. Nature, 450(7170), 756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milton, A. L., & Everitt, B. J. (2012). Neuroscience. Wiping drug memories. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6078), 167–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, B., Chen, J., & Singer, R. H. (2014). Background free imaging of single mRNAs in live cells using split fluorescent proteins. Scientific Reports, 4, 3615.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Inoue, T., Higuchi, M., Hashimoto, Y., Seki, M., Kobayashi, M., Kato, T., Tabata, S., Shinozaki, K., & Kakimoto, T. (2001). Identification of CRE1 as a cytokinin receptor from Arabidopsis. Nature, 409(6823), 1060–1063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ni, Z., Pacoret, C., Benosman, R., & Régnier, S. (2014). Haptic Feedback Teleoperation of Optical Tweezers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shi, B., & Sommerlad, B. C. (Eds.). (2013). Cleft Lip and Palate Primary Repair. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Das, S., & Dash, H. R. (2015). Computer-Aided Study of Molecular Microbiology. In H. R. Dash (Ed.), Microbial Biotechnology- A Laboratory Manual for Bacterial Systems (pp. 175–202). Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 5). Deep Ocean Harbours 95% Of All Ocean Fish. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Proposed Facility Requirements for the National Center for Toxicological Research and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (HRD-78-29). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, M. (2014). A graphic design curriculum development project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M. (2017, August 17). Pocket Dial to Reporter Gets Courts’ Spokesman Fired. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruttimann, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Milton & Everitt, 2012; Ruttimann, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milton & Everitt, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wu et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Inoue et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning and Individual Differences
AbbreviationLearn. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1041-6080
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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