How to format your references using the Learning and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. (2008). Metabolomics: Biochemistry’s new look. Nature, 455(7213), 697–700.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Medicine. Do defaults save lives? Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5649), 1338–1339.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutzoni, F., Pagel, M., & Reeb, V. (2001). Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature, 411(6840), 937–940.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nguyen, T. A., Lee, J.-U., Yoon, D., & Cheong, H. (2014). Excitation energy dependent Raman signatures of ABA- and ABC-stacked few-layer graphene. Scientific Reports, 4, 4630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow, J., Fisher, S., Mondragon-Gilmore, J., Casson, A., Orton, P. Z., Nathan, H. D., Jones, J., Hays, J., Kohn, E., Christinson, J., Sekeres, K., Swovelin, B., Di Pietro, R., Crowder, G., Spence, M., & Gilmore, P. (2009). CliffsNotes® CSET®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Ugai, K., Yagi, H., & Wakai, A. (Eds.). (2013). Earthquake-Induced Landslides: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earthquake-Induced Landslides, Kiryu, Japan, 2012. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
di Villa Bianca, R. D., Cirino, G., & Sorrentino, R. (2015). Hydrogen Sulfide and Urogenital Tract. In P. K. Moore & M. Whiteman (Eds.), Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Hydrogen Sulfide (pp. 111–136). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 30). Astronomers Measure Exoplanet’s Day For The First Time. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Secretary of the Senate Accountability as of March 31, 1977 (GGD-77-66). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oakes, A. C. (2006). States in Crisis: How Governments Respond to Domestic Unrest [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2013, September 10). Back in Queens, Johnson Is Full of Memories and Statistics. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Blow, 2008; Johnson & Goldstein, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson & Goldstein, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Lutzoni et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nguyen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning and Individual Differences
AbbreviationLearn. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1041-6080
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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