How to format your references using the Learning and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig, R. (2000). IRANIAN SCIENCE: Iran’s Scientists Cautiously Reach Out to the World. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5496), 1484–1487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vogt, N., & Desplan, C. (2010). Developmental biology. Flipping the light switch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6003), 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nolan, D., James, I., & Mallal, S. (2005). HIV/AIDS. HIV: experiencing the pressures of modern life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1422–1424.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Manning, M. R., Lowe, D. C., Moss, R. C., Bodeker, G. E., & Allan, W. (2005). Short-term variations in the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. Nature, 436(7053), 1001–1004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeod, L. E. (2016). Leading with Noble Purpose. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dillenburg, S. R. (2009). Geology and Geomorphology of Holocene Coastal Barriers of Brazil. (P. A. Hesp, Ed.) (Vol. 107). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Du, L., Wu, S., Liew, A. W.-C., Smith, D. K., & Yan, H. (2006). Parametric Spectral Analysis of Malaria Gene Expression Time Series Data. In M. R. Berthold, R. C. Glen, & I. Fischer (Eds.), Computational Life Sciences II: Second International Symposium, CompLife 2006, Cambridge, UK, September 27-29, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 32–41). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, November 13). Why European Fruit Flies Hold Their Liquor Better Than Tropical Ones. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Problems Affecting Operations at the St. Louis Postal Data Center (No. B-180235). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choi, Y.-J. (2003). Function of Commissureless and Related Genes in Drosophila Neural Development (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, April 20). Scandinavian Cool That Warmed New York. New York Times, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Koenig, 2000; Vogt & Desplan, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vogt & Desplan, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Nolan, James, & Mallal, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Manning, Lowe, Moss, Bodeker, & Allan, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning and Individual Differences
AbbreviationLearn. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1041-6080
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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