How to format your references using the Learning and Individual Differences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning and Individual Differences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howlett, R. (2001). Population ecology. Birds in a buffer state. Nature, 412(6845), 396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawatani, Y., & Hamilton, K. (2013). Weakened stratospheric quasibiennial oscillation driven by increased tropical mean upwelling. Nature, 497(7450), 478–481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilson, R. I., Turner, G. C., & Laurent, G. (2004). Transformation of olfactory representations in the Drosophila antennal lobe. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5656), 366–370.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ogushi, S., Palmieri, C., Fulka, H., Saitou, M., Miyano, T., & Fulka, J., Jr. (2008). The maternal nucleolus is essential for early embryonic development in mammals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5863), 613–616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, R. B. (2011). 20% Chance of Rain. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gan, L. (2014). Data you need to know about China: Research Report of China Household Finance Survey•2012 (Z. Yin, N. Jia, S. Xu, S. Ma, & L. Zheng, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Albors-Garrigos, J., & Carrasco, J. C. R. (2011). New Learning Paradigms: Open Course Versus Traditional Strategies. The Current Paradox of Learning and Developing Creative Ideas. In B. White, I. King, & P. Tsang (Eds.), Social Media Tools and Platforms in Learning Environments (pp. 53–79). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning and Individual Differences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, April 13). Australia To Cut Welfare Payments For Anti-Vaxxers. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Exchange Programs: Observations on International Educational, Cultural, and Training Exchange Programs (T-NSIAD-93-7). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume, D. A. (2013). An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016, October 6). Insanity Most Genteel. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Howlett, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Howlett, 2001; Kawatani & Hamilton, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kawatani & Hamilton, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Wilson et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ogushi et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning and Individual Differences
AbbreviationLearn. Individ. Differ.
ISSN (print)1041-6080
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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