How to format your references using the BMJ Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. Indian space agency sets its sights on a mission to the Moon. Nature 2000;406:5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang L, Huang HW. Observation of a membrane fusion intermediate structure. Science 2002;297:1877–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Titus TN, Kieffer HH, Christensen PR. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars. Science 2003;299:1048–51.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mao J-H, Kim I-J, Wu D, et al. FBXW7 targets mTOR for degradation and cooperates with PTEN in tumor suppression. Science 2008;321:1499–502.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton PJ. Principles of Flight for Pilots. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2010.
An edited book
Marciniak A, Yalman N, editors. Contesting Ethnoarchaeologies: Traditions, Theories, Prospects. New York, NY: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Abidin AF, Kolberg M, Hussain A. Integrating Twitter Traffic Information with Kalman Filter Models for Public Transportation Vehicle Arrival Time Prediction. In: Trovati M, Hill R, Anjum A, et al., eds. Big-Data Analytics and Cloud Computing: Theory, Algorithms and Applications. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Show Us Your Smarts: A Very Brief History Of Intelligence Testing. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Youth Job Training: Problems Measuring Attainment of Employment Competencies. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jo SM. A study of Korean students’ creativity in science using structural equation modeling. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin S. They Owe You: Compensation for Your Troubles. New York Times. 2013;:TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Case Reports
AbbreviationBMJ Case Rep.
ISSN (online)1757-790X

Other styles