How to format your references using the BMJ Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Falk D. Careers in science offer women an unusual bonus: immortality. Nature 2000;407:833.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Melville WK, Matusov P. Distribution of breaking waves at the ocean surface. Nature 2002;417:58–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Wong KM, Suchard MA, Huelsenbeck JP. Alignment uncertainty and genomic analysis. Science 2008;319:473–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Wilkie GS, Davison AJ, Kerr K, et al. First fatality associated with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 5 in an Asian elephant: pathological findings and complete viral genome sequence. Sci Rep 2014;4:6299.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Fulton BS. Drug Discovery for the Treatment of Addiction. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2014.
An edited book
1
Hauschild W. High-Voltage Test and Measuring Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Kardel T, Maquet P. 3 In Paris and France 1664-1665. In: Kardel T, Maquet P, eds. Nicolaus Steno: Biography and Original Papers of a 17th Century Scientist. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013. 115–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Case Reports.

Blog post
1
Luntz S. Rising Seas Due To Climate Change Claim Their First Mammal Species. IFLScience. 2016.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/rising-seas-due-to-climate-change-claim-their-first-mammal-species/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Unmanned Vehicles: Assessment of DOD’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Master Plan. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Pederson HM. Decreasing blame and building therapeutic alliance: Clarifying central change processes in functional family therapy. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Dorman JL. Andrew F. Smith on New York City’s Food Heritage. New York Times. 2016;:TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Case Reports
AbbreviationBMJ Case Rep.
ISSN (online)1757-790X
Scope

Other styles