How to format your references using the BMJ Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Bernstein R. From war to science paradise. Science 2015;348:602.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Aanen DK, Bisseling T. Microbiology. The birth of cooperation. Science 2014;345:29–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Richardson JE, Melosh HJ, Greenberg R. Impact-induced seismic activity on asteroid 433 Eros: a surface modification process. Science 2004;306:1526–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Dror I, Amitay T, Yaron B, et al. Salt-pump mechanism for contaminant intrusion into coastal aquifers. Science 2003;300:950.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Ludders JW, McMillan M. Errors in Veterinary Anesthesia. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2016.
An edited book
1
Marques de Sá JP. Minimum Error Entropy Classification. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Moreira AM, Hentz C, Déharbe D, et al. Verifying Code Generation Tools for the B-Method Using Tests: A Case Study. In: Blanchette JC, Kosmatov N, eds. Tests and Proofs: 9th International Conference, TAP 2015, Held as Part of STAF 2015, L’Aquila, Italy, July 22-24, 2015. Proceedings. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 76–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Case Reports.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. How Does the IPCC Know Climate Change is Happening? IFLScience. 2014.https://www.iflscience.com/environment/how-does-ipcc-know-climate-change-happening/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. New Denver Airport: Safety, Construction, Capacity, and Financing Considerations. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Abedin G. Exploring the potential of art-based education for adolescents with learning disabilities: A case study of engagement in learning through the arts. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1
Walsh MW. A.I.G.’s Chief Says Insurer Is Reducing Its Risks. New York Times. 2015;:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Case Reports
AbbreviationBMJ Case Rep.
ISSN (online)1757-790X
Scope

Other styles